PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY I D Pharmacy First Year Important Question Answer

PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY I D Pharmacy First Year Important Question Answer

 PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY I D Pharmacy First Year Important Question Answer 

Question No. 01. What are Antacids? Describe combination of antacid preparation with examples and explain Aluminium hydroxide.

Question No. 02. (a) What are acids and bases? Discuss about the various concepts about acids and bases.

(b) What are the radiopaques? Explain with example.

(c) What are official preparations of iodine? Describe povidone iodine, ammoniated mercury & chlorinated lime.

Question No.  03.  Define Radiopharmaceuticals.  What are biological effects of radiations and storage conditions of radiopharmaceuticals?  Discuss methods of quality control of active pharmaceutical ingredient as per pharmacopoeia.

Question No. 04. Describe in detail the principle and procedure involved in limit test for Arsenic and Sulphate.

Question No. 05. Describe in detail the sources of impurities in pharmaceutical chemicals. Give importance of quality control of the drugs.

Question No. 06. Define electrolyte replacement therapy. What are the role of major intra and extra cellular electrolytes? Explain the preparation, properties and uses of sodium chloride.

Question No. 07. Give physical and chemical properties and uses of each compound.

(a) Borax

(b) Alum

(c) Boric Acid

(d) Zinc sulphate

(e) Zinc chloride

Question No. 08. What are Antidotes? Explain their mechanism & discuss cyanide poisoning in detail?

Question No. 09. (a) Define anions and cations. Describe identification test for Na+, K+, Ca++, Cl–, SO4- – and HCO3-.

(b) Describe limit test for Iron.

Question No. 10. Write short note on the following:

(a) Antimicrobials

(b) Astringents

(c) Protective and adsorbent

(d) Antioxidants

(e) Expectorant and Emetics

Question No. 11. (a) Discuss in brief the dental products.

(b) Define the buffer solution? How many types of buffer solution are there? Explain.

Question No. 12. Write down:

(a) Chemical formula and use of laughing gas

(b) Pharmaceutical uses of nitrogen

(c) Composition of soda lime

(d) Buffer capacity

(e) Temperature range for storage of drugs under cold condition and cool condition

(f) Differentiate very soluble and freely soluble salts.

Question No.13.  Write storage conditions of following compounds; iodine, normal saline solution, chlorinated lime, sodium hydroxide. Also explain the reason

Question No. 14. Write a note on physiological acid base balance.

Question No. 15. (a) Write down the theory of limit test for chloride.

(b) Name four official compounds of calcium and explain the physiological role of calcium in human body.

Question no. 16. What is the principle of Geiger muller counter?

Question No.17. Write note on physiological acid base balance

Question No.18. (a) Write down the theory of limit test for chloride.

(b)  Name four official compounds of calcium and explain physiological roles of calcium in human body.

Question no. 19. What is the principle of Geiger muller counter?

PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY I D Pharmacy First Year Important Question Answer  For PDF Notes click on Download Button


Q1: What are antacids, and how do they work? Antacids are medications that help neutralize excess stomach acid, providing relief from indigestion and heartburn. They work by raising the pH of the stomach.

Q2: Can you provide examples of antacid preparations? Common antacids include aluminum hydroxide, magnesium hydroxide, calcium carbonate, and sodium bicarbonate.

Q3: Tell me more about Aluminum Hydroxide. Aluminum hydroxide is an antacid that neutralizes stomach acid. It can also act as a phosphate binder in individuals with kidney disease. It is available in various formulations and is considered safe when used as directed.

Q4: What are acids and bases, and how are they defined? Acids are substances that can donate a proton (H+ ion), while bases are substances that can accept a proton. Various theories, such as the Arrhenius, Bronsted-Lowry, and Lewis theories, define acids and bases differently.

Q5: What are radiopaques, and can you provide an example? Radiopaques are substances that do not allow X-rays to pass through them. A common example is barium sulfate, used for diagnostic purposes, such as barium meal studies.

Q6: What are the official preparations of iodine, and how are they used? Official preparations of iodine include povidone iodine (used as an antiseptic), ammoniated mercury (used in skin conditions), and chlorinated lime (used for disinfection).

Q7: What are radiopharmaceuticals, and what is their purpose? Radiopharmaceuticals are drugs containing radioactive isotopes used for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes, particularly in nuclear medicine.

Q8: What are the biological effects of radiation, and how should radiopharmaceuticals be stored? Radiation can harm living tissues. Radiopharmaceuticals must be stored in controlled conditions to prevent deterioration and accidental exposure.

Q9: How is the quality of active pharmaceutical ingredients controlled according to pharmacopoeia standards? Quality control methods are employed, including chemical and physical tests, to ensure active pharmaceutical ingredients meet pharmacopoeial specifications.

Q10: What is the principle behind the limit test for arsenic and sulfate in pharmaceuticals? The limit test is conducted to ensure that pharmaceuticals do not contain toxic levels of arsenic or excessive sulfate. It involves chemical reactions that produce characteristic precipitates.

Q11: What are the common sources of impurities in pharmaceutical chemicals? Impurities can come from raw materials, the manufacturing process, and storage conditions. Contaminants may be chemical or microbial in nature.

Q12: Why is quality control of pharmaceuticals important? Quality control ensures that pharmaceutical products are safe, effective, and meet regulatory standards. It helps maintain product consistency and patient safety.

Q13: What is electrolyte replacement therapy, and why is it important? Electrolyte replacement therapy involves restoring essential ions in the body, such as sodium, potassium, and chloride, to maintain normal physiological functions.

Q14: Can you explain the preparation, properties, and uses of sodium chloride? Sodium chloride, or table salt, is used in various pharmaceutical formulations as a saline solution. It plays a crucial role in maintaining fluid balance and electrolyte levels in the body.

Q15: Can you provide physical and chemical properties and uses of Borax? Borax is a white crystalline compound with various applications, such as a cleaning agent, insecticide, and in buffer solutions. It exhibits a range of properties including solubility and mild alkalinity.

Q16: What are the properties and uses of Alum, Boric Acid, Zinc Sulphate, and Zinc Chloride?

  • Alum, known as aluminum potassium sulfate, is an astringent used in various applications like water purification and as a mordant in dyeing.
  • Boric Acid is an antiseptic and insecticide with mild acidity.
  • Zinc Sulphate is a dietary supplement and an ingredient in ointments for skin conditions.
  • Zinc Chloride serves as a catalyst in various chemical reactions and as a disinfectant.

Q17: What are antidotes, and how do they work? Antidotes are substances or treatments that counteract the effects of poison or toxic substances. They may work by binding to the poison, neutralizing it, or enhancing its elimination from the body.

Q18: Can you discuss the mechanism and antidotes for cyanide poisoning? Cyanide poisoning can be treated with antidotes like sodium thiosulfate and hydroxocobalamin, which help convert cyanide into less toxic forms and promote its elimination from the body.

Q19: How are anions and cations defined, and what are common identification tests for them? Anions are negatively charged ions, and cations are positively charged ions. Identification tests include flame tests, precipitation reactions, and specific chemical tests.

Q20: What is the limit test for iron? The limit test for iron is a chemical test to ensure that iron is not present in excessive quantities in pharmaceuticals. It typically involves the formation of a colored complex with thioglycolic acid.

Q21: Can you provide short notes on the following pharmaceutical topics: Antimicrobials, Astringents, Protective and Adsorbent, Antioxidants, and Expectorants and Emetics?

  • Antimicrobials are drugs that inhibit or kill microorganisms.
  • Astringents cause contraction of tissues and are used in products like aftershaves.
  • Protective and adsorbent agents prevent irritation and adsorb toxins.
  • Antioxidants prevent oxidative damage.
  • Expectorants promote mucus clearance from the respiratory tract, while emetics induce vomiting.

Q22: Can you discuss dental products in brief? Dental products include toothpaste, mouthwash, and dental floss, used for oral hygiene and cavity prevention.

Q23: What is a buffer solution, and how many types are there? A buffer solution resists changes in pH when an acid or base is added. There are two main types: acidic buffers and basic buffers, each maintaining a specific pH range.

Q24: Could you provide information on the chemical formula and uses of laughing gas, the pharmaceutical uses of nitrogen, the composition of soda lime, buffer capacity, and the temperature range for storing drugs under cold and cool conditions?

  • Laughing gas is nitrous oxide (N2O) used as an anesthetic.
  • Nitrogen (N2) is used in pharmaceuticals for preserving and packaging.
  • Soda lime is a mixture of chemicals used to absorb carbon dioxide.
  • Buffer capacity measures the ability of a buffer solution to resist changes in pH.
  • Drugs are stored under cold conditions at 2-8°C and cool conditions at 8-15°C, depending on their stability requirements.

Q25: Can you explain the storage conditions for iodine, normal saline solution, chlorinated lime, and sodium hydroxide, along with the reasons?

  • Iodine should be stored in a cool, dark place to prevent degradation.
  • Normal saline solution is stored at room temperature.
  • Chlorinated lime is kept in a dry, well-ventilated area to avoid contact with moisture.
  • Sodium hydroxide should be stored in a cool, dry place to prevent moisture absorption and caking.

Q26: Can you provide a note on physiological acid-base balance? Physiological acid-base balance refers to the body’s regulation of hydrogen ion concentrations to maintain a stable pH, crucial for normal bodily functions.

Q27: How is the limit test for chloride performed, and what theory is involved? The limit test for chloride involves precipitating chloride ions with silver nitrate and titration. It is based on the Mohr theory.

Q28: What are four official calcium compounds, and what is the physiological role of calcium in the human body? Four official calcium compounds include calcium carbonate, calcium gluconate, calcium chloride, and calcium lactate. Calcium plays a vital role in muscle contraction, nerve transmission, and bone health.

Q29: Can you explain the principle of the Geiger-Muller counter? The Geiger-Muller counter is a radiation detection device that measures ionizing radiation. It operates on the principle that radiation ionizes gas in the detector, producing an electrical signal.

Q30: We also covered the principle of the Geiger-Muller counter.

These questions and answers provide an overview of various topics in Pharmaceutical Chemistry – Part I, including antacids, radiopaques, radiopharmaceuticals, quality control, impurities, electrolyte therapy, compounds and their properties, antidotes, identification tests, dental products, buffer solutions, storage conditions, acid-base balance, and the Geiger-Muller counter principle.

Q31: How is the Geiger-Muller counter used in radiation detection? The Geiger-Muller counter detects ionizing radiation by measuring the electrical pulses generated when radiation interacts with the gas inside the counter. These pulses are counted to assess radiation levels.

Q32: Could you provide a brief recap of the main topics covered in Pharmaceutical Chemistry – Part I? Certainly, we covered a wide range of topics, including antacids, radiopaques, radiopharmaceuticals, quality control, impurities, electrolyte therapy, properties of various compounds, antidotes, identification tests, dental products, buffer solutions, storage conditions, acid-base balance, and radiation detection.

Q33: Where can students find more resources and information on these topics for their studies? Students can refer to textbooks, academic journals, and online resources specific to pharmaceutical chemistry and related subjects. Additionally, consulting with professors or instructors can be valuable for further understanding and clarification.

PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY I D Pharmacy First Year Important Question Answer For PDF Notes click on Download Button

1 thought on “PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY I D Pharmacy First Year Important Question Answer”

Leave a comment