Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act 1960

Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act 1960

Contents

       Objectives,
establishment, constitution and functions of Animal Welfare Board of India.

       CPSCEA
guidelines. Procedures to be followed during animal experimentation. Offences
and penalties

Learning objectives

At the
end of this lecture, the student will be able to:

       Explain the objectives of the act

       Describe
the constitution and functions of Animal Welfare Board of India

       Describe
the constitution and functions of Animal experimentation committee

Short title, extent and
commencement

(1) This Act may be called the Prevention of Cruelty to
Animals Act, 1960.

(2) It extends to the whole of India except the State of
Jammu and Kashmir. ,

(3) It shall come into force on such date as the Central
Government may, by notification in the official Gazette, appoint, and different
dates may be appointed for different States and for the different provisions
contained in this Act.

Objectives of the
act

To prevent the infliction of unnecessary pain or suffering
on animals and for that purpose to amend the law relating to the prevention of cruelty
to animals

ANIMAL WELFARE BOARD OF INDIA

Purpose:

For the promotion of animal welfare generally and for the
purpose of protecting animals from being subjected to unnecessary pain or
suffering

The different acts under this board are

  1. PCA
    (Slaughter House) Amendment Rules, 2010

  2. Draft
    Aquarium Fish Breeding Rules, 2010

  3. Draft
    Dog Breeding Rules 2010

  4. Revised
    Draft Pet Shop Rules, 2010

  5. Transport
    of Animals (Amendment) Rules, 2009

  6. Draft
    Animal Welfare Act, 2011

  7. Animal
    birth control(Dogs) Amendment Rules 2010

 

Constitution:

The Board shall consist of the following persons, namely:

(a) the Inspector General of Forests, Govt. of India,
ex-officio,

(b) the Animal Husbandry Commissioner to the Govt. of India,
ex-officio;

(c) two persons to represent respectively the Ministries of
the Central Govt. dealing with Home Affairs and Education, to be appointed by
the Central Govt;

(d) 1 person to represent the Indian Board for Wild Life, to
be appointed by the Central Government;

(e) 3 persons who, in the opinion of the Central Government,
are or have been actively engaged in animal welfare work and are well-known
humanitarians, to be nominated by the Central Government;)

(f) 1 person to represent such association of veterinary
practitioners as in the opinion of the Central Government ought to be
represented on the Board, to be elected by that association in the prescribed
manner;

(g) 2 persons to represent practitioners of modern and
indigenous systems of medicine, to be nominated by the Central Government;

(h) 1 person to represent each of such two municipal
corporations as in the opinion of the Central Government ought to be
represented on the Board, to be elected by each of the said corporations in the
prescribed manner

(i) 1 person to represent each of such three organizations
actively interested in animal welfare as in the opinion of the Central
Government ought to be represented on the Board, to be chosen by each of the
said organizations in the prescribed manner;

(j) 1 person to represent each of such three societies
dealing with prevention of cruelty to animal

(k) 3 persons to be nominated by the Central Government,

(l) 6 Members of Parliament, 4 to be elected by the House of
the People (Lok Sabha) and two by the Council of States (Rajya Sabha).

The Central Government shall nominate one of the members of
the Board to be its Chairman and another member of the Board to be its
Vice-Chairman.

Reconstitution
of the Board

         
The Board as reconstituted under sub-section (1)
shall be reconstituted from time to time on the expiration of every third year

         
 The new
members shall hold office only for the unexpired portion of the term for
which
they would have held office if such reconstitution had not been made

         
Vacancies arising as a result of their ceasing
to be Members of the Board shall be filled up as casual vacancies for the
remaining period of the term of the Board as so reconstituted

Term of
office and conditions of service of Members of the Board

         
 The term
of office of an ex-officio Member shall continue so long as he holds the office
by virtue of which he is such a Member;

         
 The term
of office of a Member elected or chosen shall come to an end as soon as he
ceases to be a Member of the body which elected him or in respect of which he
was chosen;

         
The term of office of a Member appointed,
nominated, elected or chosen to fill a casual vacancy shall continue for the
remainder of the term of office of the member in whose place he is appointed,
nominated, elected or chosen;

         
The Central Government may, at any time, remove
for reasons to be recorded in writing a member from office after giving him a
reasonable opportunity of showing cause against the proposed removal and any
vacancy caused by such removal shall be treated as casual vacancy for the
purpose

Functions
of the Board

         
To keep the law in force in, India for the
prevention of cruelty to animals under constant study and advise the Government
on the amendments to be undertaken in any such law from time to time;

         
 To advise
the Central Government on the making of rules under this Act with a view to
preventing unnecessary pain or suffering to animals generally, and more
particularly when they are being transported from one place to another or when
they are used as performing animals or when they are kept in captivity or
confinement

         
To advise the Government or any local authority
or other person on improvements in the design of vehicles so as to lessen the
burden on draught animals

         
 To take
all such steps as the Board may think fit for (amelioration of animals ) by
encouraging or providing for, the construction of sheds, water-troughs and the
like and by providing for veterinary assistance to animals:

         
To advise the Government or any local authority
or other person in the design of slaughter-houses or the maintenance of
slaughter houses

         
To  advise
the Government regarding the  slaughter
of animals so that unnecessary pain or suffering, whether physical or mental,
is eliminated in the pre-slaughter stages as far as possible, and animals are
killed; wherever necessary, in as humane a manner as possible;

         
To take all such steps as the Board may think
fit to ensure that unwanted animals are destroyed by local authorities,
whenever it is necessary to do so, either instantaneously or after being
rendered insensible to pain or suffering.

         
To encourage by the grant of financial
assistance or otherwise, the formation or establishment of pinjra poles, rescue
homes, animal shelters, sanctuaries and where animals and birds may find a shelter
when they have become old and useless or when they need protection:

         
To co-operate with, and co-ordinate the work of,
associations or bodies established for the purpose of preventing unnecessary
pain or suffering to animals or for the protection of animals and birds;

         
To give financial and other assistance to animal
welfare organisations functioning in any local area or to encourage the
formation of animal welfare organisations in any local area which shall work
under the general supervision and guidance of the Board;

         
 To advise
the Government on matters relating to the medical care and attention which may
be provided in animal hospital, and to give financial and other assistance to
animal hospitals whenever the Board thinks it necessary to do so;

         
To impart education in relation to the humane
treatment of animals and to encourage the formation of public opinion against
the infliction of unnecessary pain or suffering to animals and for the
promotion of animal welfare by means of lectures, books, posters,
cinematographic exhibitions and the like;

         
To advise the Government on any matter connected
with animal welfare or the prevention of infliction of unnecessary pain or
suffering on animals.

CPCSEA GUIDELINES

         
The Committee for the Purpose of Control and
Supervision of Experiments on Animals (CPCSEA) is a statutory Committee, which
is established under Chapter 4, Section 15(1) of the Prevention of Cruelty to
Animals Act 1960

         
 India is
one of the pioneering countries to institute Prevention of Cruelty to Animals
Act in 1960 whereas such Act was instituted in France in 1963 and in USA in
1966. 

OBJECTIVES

The goal of these Guidelines is to promote the humane
care of animals used in biomedical and behavioral research and testing
with
the basic objective of providing specifications that will enhance animal
well-being
, quality in the pursuit of advancement of biological knowledge
that is relevant to humans and animals

The main functions of CPCSEA are:

  1. Registration
    of establishments conducting animal experimentation or breeding of animals
    for this purpose

  2. Selection
    and assignment of nominees for the Institutional Animal Ethics Committees
    of the registered establishments

  3. Approval
    of Animal House Facilities on the basis of reports of inspections conducted
    by CPCSEA

  4. Permission
    for conducting experiments involving use of animals

  5. Recommendation
    for import of animals for use in experiments

  6. Action
    against establishments in case of established violation of any legal
    norm/stipulation

  7. Conduct
    of Training Programmes for the Nominees of CPCSEA

  8. Conduct
    / Support of Conference / workshop on Animal Ethics

Constitution

         
2 members each from ICMR, ICAR, CSIR nominated
by the central govt.

         
2 members representing universities granting
medical and veterinary degrees nominated by the central govt.

         
1 member of the Lok Sabha and 1 of the Rajya
Sabha to be elected by the houses respectively

         
5 non- officials representing persons actively
engaged in the promotion of animal welfare nominated by the central government

CORE
MEMBERS

         
Hon.
Smt. Maneka Gandhi – drafted under chairperson, CPCSEA

         
Mr.
A.K.Joshi – Member Secretary, CPCSEA

Subcommittee
members

         
Dr.
Manju Sharma – secretary, department of biotechnology

         
Members

         
Dr.
Vasanth muthuswamy- Sr. DDG, Indian Council Of Medical Research

         
Dr.
Lal Krishna – ADG,(AH) ICAR, New Delhi

         
Dr.
S.S. Murugan – SGS India private limited, Chennai

Quarantine,
stabilization and separation

Quarantine-

Ø  Separation of newly received animals
from those already in the facility until the health and possibly the microbial
status of newly received animal have been determine.

Ø  A minimum duration of quarantine for
small animal-1 week and for larger animal-6 week (acclimatization)

Ø  Physiologic, psychological and
nutritional stabilization should be given before their use.

Ø   Duration of stabilization will depend on type
and duration of animal transportation, and species of animal.

Separation-

Ø  Physical separation of animal by
species is recommended to prevent interspecies disease transmission and to
eliminate anxiety and possible physiological and behavioural changes due to
interspecies conflict.

Ø   Housing different species in separate room.

Ø   It shall be acceptable to house different
species in the same room only if they have a similar pathogen status and are
behaviourally compatible.

Surveillance,
Diagnosis, Treatment and Control of disease

Ø  All animal should be observed for
signs of illness, injury, or abnormal behaviour by animal house staff.

Ø   Animals that show signs of a contagious
disease should be isolated from healthy animals in the colony.

Animal
care and technical personnel

       Animal care require technical and
husbandry support.

       Institution should employ people
trained in laboratory animal or provide for both formal and on the job training
to ensure effective implementation of the program.

Personal
hygiene

Ø  Animal care staff maintain a high
standard of personal cleanliness.

Ø  Clothing suitable for use in the
animal facility should be supplied and laundered by the institution.

Ø  It acceptable to use disposable gear
such as gloves, masks, head covers, coats, coveralls and shoe covers.

Ø  Person should change clothing as
often as is necessary to maintain personal hygiene.

Ø  Personnel should not be permitted to
eat, drink, smoke or apply cosmetic in animal rooms.

Multiple
surgical procedures on single animal

Multiple
surgical procedures on a single animal for any testing or experiment are not to
be practiced unless specified in a protocol only approved by the IAEC.

Durations
of experiments

No animal
should be used for experimentation for more than 3 years unless adequate
justification is provided.

Physical
restraint

Ø  Restraint devices cannot be used
simply as a convenience in handling or managing animals.

Ø  The period of restraint should be
the minimum required to accomplish the research objectives.

Ø  Provision should be made for
observation of the animal at appropriate 
intervals

Physical
relationship of animal facilities of laboratories

Ø  Animal shall be housed in an
isolated building located as far away from human habitations as possible and
not exposed to dust, smoke, noise, wild rodent, insects and birds.

Ø  This separation can be accomplished
by having the animal quarters in a separate building, wing, floor or room.

Ø  The animal room should occupy about
50-60% of the total constructed area and the remaining area should be utilized
for service such as stores, washing, office and staff, machine rooms,
quarantine and corridors.

Ø  Since animals are very sensitive to
environmental changes, sharp fluctuations in temperature, humidity, light,
sound and ventilation should be avoided.

PHYSICAL
FACILITIES

Ø  BUILDING MATERIALS- moisture-proof, fire-resistant, seamless materials are most desirable
for interior surfaces including vermin and pest resistance.

Ø  CORRIDOR- wide
enough to facilitate the movement of personnel as well as equipments and should
be kept clean.

Ø  UTILITIES-
water lines, drain pipes and electrical connection

Ø  ANIMAL ROOM DOORS- rust, vermin and dust proof. it properly within their frames and
provided with an observation window.

Ø  FLOORS-
smooth, moisture proof, non-absorbent, skid-proof, resistant to wear, acid,
solvents, adverse effects of detergents and disinfectants. Capable of
supporting racks, equipment and stored items without becoming gouged, cracked,
or pitted.

Ø  DRAINS-
floor drains are not essential in all rooms used exclusively for housing
rodents.

Ø  WALLS & CEILINGS- free of cracks, unsealed utility penetrations, or imperfect junction
with doors, ceilings, floors and corners.

Ø  STORAGE AREAS-
separate storage areas should be designed for feed, bedding, cages and
materials not in use.

Ø  FACILITIES FOR SANITIZING EQUIPMET AND SUPPLIES- an area for sanitizing cages and
ancillary equipment is essential with adequate water supply.

Ø  EXPERIMENTAL AREA- should be carried out in a separate area from the place where animals
are housed.

ENVIRONMENT

Ø  TEMPERATURE AND HUMIDITY
CONTROL- 

·        
air
conditioning

·        
temperature
with in the range of  64.4-84 o
F

·        
relative
humidity- 30-70% throughout the year

·        
for
large animal comfortable zone-18-37˚c

Ø  POWER & LIGHTING-

·        
the
electrical system should be safe and provide appropriate lighting and a
sufficient no. of power outlets.

·        
A
time control light system should be used.

Ø  NOISE CONTROL- noise free
environment

FOOD

Ø  Should be fed palatable,
non-contaminated and nutritionally adequate food.

Ø  Feeders should allow easy access to
food while avoiding contamination by urine and faeces.

Ø  Food should be available in amounts
sufficient to ensure normal growth in immature animals and maintenance of
normal body weight, reproduction and lactations in adults.

Ø  Areas in which diets are stored
should be kept clean and enclosed to prevent entry of insects or other animals.

Ø  Diet should be free from heavy
metals.

WATER

Ø  Fresh

Ø   Potable

Ø   Uncontaminated

WATER
DISPOSAL

The most
preferred method of waste disposal is incineration. If wastes must be stored
before removal , the waste storage area should be separated from other storage
facilities and free of flies, cockroaches, rodents and other vermin. 

PEST
CONTROL

Programs
designed to prevent, control, or eliminate the presence of or infestations by
pests are essential in an animal environment

EMERGENCY,
WEEKEND AND HOLIDAY CARE

Animal
should be cared for by qualified personnel every day, including weekends and
holidays, to safeguards their well- being including emergency veterinary care.

RECORD
KEEPING

Ø  Animal house plans

Ø  Animal house staff record

Ø  Health record of staff/animals

Ø  All SOPs relevant to the animals

Ø  Breeding, stock, purchase and sales
records

Ø  Minutes of institute animals ethics
committee meetings

Ø  Records of experiments conducted
with the no. of animals used

Ø  Death record

Ø  Clinical record of sick animals
training record of staff involved in animal activities

Ø  Water analysis report

STANDARD
OPERATING PROCEDURES ( SOPS)/ GUIDELINES

Maintain
SOPs describing procedures/ methods adapted with regard to animal husbandry,
maintenance, breeding, animal house microbial analysis and experimentation
record.

SOPs should
contain following items-

Ø  Name of author

Ø  Title of SOP

Ø  Date of preparation

Ø  Reference of previous SOP on the
same subject and date

Ø  Location and distribution of  SOPs with sign of each recipient

Ø  Objectives

Ø  Detailed information of the
instruments used in relation with animals

Ø  Normal value of all parameters.

TRANSPORT
OF LABORATORY ANIMALS

The main
considerations for transport of animals are the mode of transport, the
containers, the animal density in cages, food and water during transit,
protection from transit infection, injuries and stress.

ANAESTHESIA

Ø  Sedatives, analgesics and
anaesthetics should be used to control pain or distress under experiment

Ø   Before use actual anaesthetics the animals is
prepared for anaesthesia by over night fasting and using pre-anaesthetics.

Ø  Local or general anaesthetics may be
used depending on type of surgical procedure.

DISPOSAL

       The transgenic and knockout animal
should be first euthanized and then disposed off as prescribed elsewhere in the
guidelines

        A record of disposal and the manner of
disposal should be kept as a matter of routine

       knockout
mouse
 is a laboratory mouse in which researchers have
inactivated, or “knocked out,” an existing gene by replacing it or
disrupting it with an artificial piece of DNA.

       transgenic
animal
 is one whose genome has been changed to carry genes from
other species. The nucleus of all cells in every living organism
contains genes made up of DNA. These genes store information that regulates how
our bodies form and function

Procedures
to be followed

         
When the experiments are performed by the
institutions, their heads shall be responsible for fulfilling the
objectives  of the act

         
Where individuals run any experiment on animals,
they shall be individually responsible 
for avoidance of cruelty

         
The experiments should be performed while the
animals are under the influence of an anesthetic and if the recovery of the
animal involves serious suffering, it should be destroyed

         
If possible use a small animal for an experiment
and where possible replace animal with models, films, cell lines etc.

         
The animals intended to be used for experiments
should be properly  cared for before and
after experiments and record of experiments performed should be maintained

Offences and penalties

         
If any person contravens any conditions imposed
by the committee, he may be punished with a fine extending upto Rs. 200

Summary

  1. The
    act was instituted in 1960 to prevent the infliction of unnecessary pain
    or suffering on animals and for that purpose to amend the law relating to
    the prevention of cruelty to animals
  2. The act
    includes committees like the Animal Welfare Board of India and CPCSEA

  3. CPCSEA:
    Committee for the Purpose of Control And Supervision of Experiments on
    Animals

  4. Committee
    supervises experimentation on animals

  5. Stipulates
    procedures to followed while carrying out experimentation on animals

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