Environmental Sciences – B.Pharma 2nd Semester PDF Notes

Environmental Sciences – B.Pharma 2nd Semester PDF Notes

Environmental Sciences B.Pharma 2nd Semester PDF Notes

Scope: Environmental Sciences is the scientific study of the environmental system and the status of its inherent or induced changes on organisms. It includes not only the study of physical and biological characteristics of the environment but also the social and cultural factors and the impact of man on the environment.

Objectives: Upon completion of the course the student shall be able to:

1. Create awareness about environmental problems among learners.

2. Impart basic knowledge about the environment and its allied problems.

3. Develop an attitude of concern for the environment.

4. Motivate learners to participate in environmental protection and environmental improvement.

5. Acquire skills to help the concerned individuals in identifying and solving environmental problems.

6. Strive to attain harmony with Nature.

Course content:

Environmental Sciences Unit-I

The Multidisciplinary Nature of environmental studies

Natural Resources

Renewable and non-renewable resources: Natural resources and associated problems

a) Forest  resources; 

b) Water resources; 

c) Mineralresources;

d) Food resources;

e) Energy resources;

f) Land resources: Role of an individual in conservation of natural resources.

Environmental Sciences Unit-II


Concept of an ecosystem.

Structure and function of an ecosystem.

Introduction, types, characteristic features, structure, and function of the ecosystems: Forest ecosystem; Grassland ecosystem; Desert
ecosystem; Aquatic ecosystems (ponds, streams, lakes, rivers, oceans, estuaries)

Environmental Sciences Unit- III

Environmental Pollution: Air pollution; Water pollution; Soil pollution

Environmental Science Notes PDF Free Download

Environmental Sciences Short Notes:

1. Natural Resources:

Natural resources are materials or substances that occur naturally and are valuable to humans.

They can be classified into two categories: renewable resources and non-renewable resources.

Examples of natural resources include air, water, minerals, forests, wildlife, and agricultural land.

2. Renewable and Non-Renewable Resources:

Renewable resources are those that can be replenished or replaced naturally over time, such as solar energy, wind energy, and biomass.

Non-renewable resources, on the other hand, are finite and cannot be easily replaced, such as fossil fuels (coal, oil, natural gas) and minerals.

Sustainable management and conservation of natural resources are crucial for maintaining a balance between human needs and environmental preservation.

3. Ecosystems:

Ecosystems are dynamic communities of organisms (plants, animals, microorganisms) interacting with their physical environment.

They consist of biotic components (living organisms) and abiotic components (air, water, soil, sunlight).

Ecosystems provide various services, including nutrient cycling, pollination, climate regulation, and habitat provision.

4. Air Pollution:

Air pollution refers to the contamination of the atmosphere with harmful substances, such as pollutants and greenhouse gases.

Sources of air pollution include industrial emissions, vehicle exhaust, burning of fossil fuels, and agricultural activities.

It can have adverse effects on human health, climate change, and the environment, leading to respiratory diseases, smog formation, and ozone depletion.

5. Water Pollution:

Water pollution occurs when harmful substances contaminate freshwater bodies like rivers, lakes, and groundwater.

Sources of water pollution include industrial waste, agricultural runoff, improper sewage disposal, and oil spills.

It poses a threat to aquatic ecosystems, drinking water supplies, and human health, leading to the degradation of water quality and the loss of biodiversity.

6. Soil Pollution:

Soil pollution refers to the contamination of soil with toxic chemicals, pesticides, heavy metals, or improper disposal of waste.

It can result from industrial activities, agricultural practices, improper waste management, and mining.

Soil pollution can adversely affect soil fertility, crop productivity, and the health of plants, animals, and humans.

Environmental Sciences Recommended Books (Latest edition):

1. Y.K.  Sing, Environmental Science, New Age International Pvt, Publishers, Bangalore

2. Agarwal, K.C. 2001 Environmental Biology, Nidi Publ. Ltd. Bikaner.

3. Bharuch Erach, The Biodiversity of India, Mapin Publishing Pvt. Ltd., Ahmedabad – 380 013, India,

4. Brunner R.C., 1989, Hazardous Waste Incineration, McGraw Hill Inc. 480p

5. Clark R.S., Marine Pollution, Clanderson Press Oxford

6. Cunningham, W.P. Cooper, T.H. Gorhani, E & Hepworth, M.T. 2001, Environmental Encyclopedia, Jaico Publ. House, Mumbai, 1196p

7. De A.K., Environmental Chemistry, Wiley Eastern Ltd.

8. Down of Earth, Centre for Science and Environment

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