Water pollution

Water pollution

Learning Outcomes

At the end of this
session, students will be able to

• Explain water Pollution

• Describe the source of water pollution

• Discuss the effect of water pollution

• Discuss control of water pollution


• Water Pollution

• Source of Water pollution

• Effect of Water pollution

• Water pollution Management and Control


• Importance of water for sustenance of life cannot be
overemphasized. Whether it is in use of running water in our homes, rearing cattle
and growing crops in our farms, or the increased uses in industry, remain

• It is important therefore, to not that depletion of this
commodity either through contamination, or careless use results in serous

• Water is considered polluted if some substances or
condition is present to such a degree that the water cannot be used for a
specific purpose

• Defined  as  presence 
of  excessive  amounts 
of  a  hazard 
(pollutants)  in water  in 
such  a  way 
that  it  is 
no  long  suitable 
for  drinking,  bathing, cooking or other uses

• Pollution is the introduction of a contamination into the

• It is created by industrial and commercial waster,
agricultural practices, everyday human activities and most notably, models of

Sources of
Water Pollution

i. Sewage leakages

ii. High population density

iii. Oil spillage

iv. Industrial waste dumped into our waters

v. Pollution of ground water through drilling activities

vi. Flooding during rainy season which carries waste
deposits into our waters

vii. Radioisotopes

viii. Heavy metal

ix. Combustion

x. Toxic waste disposal at sea

xi. Mineral processing plant (e.g. coal production)

xii. Eroded sediments xiii. Deforestation

xiv. Mining

xv. Pesticides

xvi. Herbicides and fertilizers xvii. Failing septic system

xviii. House hold chemicals

xix. Animal wastes

Effects of
Water Pollution

• Water pollution has a duel effect on nature

• Has negative effects on the living and also on the

• Effects of pollution on human beings and aquatic
communities are many and varied

• Water pollution causes approximately 14,000 deaths per
day, mostly due to contamination of drinking water by untreated sewage in
developing countries

• An estimated 700 million Indians have no access to a
proper toilet and 1,000 Indians children’s die of diarrhea every day

• Biomas and diversity of communities are to be expected
when large amount of toxic materials are released into the streams, lakes and
coastal waters in the ocean

• Much of aquatic pollution involves sewage in which organic
waste predominate

• This waste can increase secondary productivity while
altering the character of the aquatic community

• Most fishes especially the species desired as food by man
are among the sensitive species that disappear with the least intense pollution

• Water pollution leads to damage to human health

• Disease carrying agents such as bacteria and viruses are
carried into the surface and ground water

• Drinking water is affected and health hazards result

• Direct damage to plants and animals nutrition also affects
human health

• Plants nutrients including nitrogen, phosphorus and other
substances that support the growth of aquatic plant life could be in excess
causing algal gloom and excessive weed growth

• This makes water to have odour, taste and sometimes colour

• Ultimately, the ecological balance of a body of water is

• Sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides cause acid rain which
lowers the PH value of soil and emission of carbon dioxide cause ocean
acidification, the ongoing decrease in the PH of the Earth’s Oceans as CO2
becomes dissolved

Management and Control

• There are many approaches that could be adopted in water
pollution control and management

• Prevention of water pollution includes the following ways:

i. Wash your car far away from any storm water drains

ii. Don’t throw trash, chemicals or solvents into sewer

iii. Inspects your septic system every 3 – 5 years

iv. Avoid using pesticides and fertilizers that can run off
into water systems

v. Sweep your driveway instead of hosing it down

vi. Always pump your waste-holding tanks on your boat vii.
Use non-toxic cleaning materials

viii. Clean up oil and other liquid spills with kitty litter
and sweep them up

ix. Don’t wash paints brushes in the sink

Another way is to join or get involved with pollution
prevention is to practice efforts on your own or join projects or programme

• Pollution control means to control the emissions and
effluents into the air, water and land or soil

• Without pollution control, the waster products from
consumptions, heating, agriculture, mining, manufacturing, transportation and
other human activities, whether they accumulate or disperse, will degrade the

• Pollution prevention and waste minimization are more
desirable than pollution control

• However, pollution could be minimize by adopting these

(i) by recycling

(ii) by reusing

(iii) waste minimization

(iv) by mitigating

(v) by preventing

(vi) by compost


• Water is considered polluted if some substances or
condition is present to such a degree that the water cannot be used for a
specific purpose

• Sources of Water Pollution are Sewage leakages, High
population density, oil spillage etc

• Water pollution has a duel effect on nature and has
negative effects on the living and also on the environment

• There  are  many 
approaches  that  could 
be  adopted  in 
water  pollution control and
management i.e. prevention, practice efforts or join a project/program;
Regulation and monitoring or engaging in control measures by reducing or
minimizing waste

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