Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) – B. Pharma 2nd Semester Pathophysiology notes pdf

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)







At the end of this Lecture, student will be able to

       Define  AIDS

       Describe the structure of HIV

       Discuss  the etiology Of AIDS

       Explain the pathogenesis of AIDS



       HIV stands for the Human Immunodeficiency Virus

       A group of viruses known as retroviruses

       After getting into the body, the virus kills or damages cells of the body’s immune system

       Body tries to keep up by making new cells or trying to contain the virus

       Destroys the body’s ability to fight infections and certain cancers


       HIV 1 & HIV 2

       Although all HIV viruses are similar

       Small variations or mutations in the genetic material of the virus create drug-resistant viruses

       Larger variations in the viral genes are found in different viral subtypes

       HIV-1 is the predominant subtype that causes HIV/AIDS

HIV Structure

HIV Structure,

AIDS Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

        HIV is the virus that causes AIDS

        Disease limits the body’s ability to fight infection

       A person with AIDS has a very weak immune system

       No Cure

Etiology of HIV

       Virus can enter the body through the lining of the vagina, vulva, penis, rectum, or mouth – during sexual contact

       HIV frequently spreads among injection

       Drug users who share needles or syringes contaminated with blood from an infected person

       Women can transmit HIV to their babies during pregnancy or birth

       When infected maternal cells enter the baby’s circulation, or through breastfeeding

       HIV can be spread in health-care settings through accidental needle sticks or contact with contaminated fluid

       Very rarely – transfusion of contaminated blood or blood components

       People who already have a sexually transmitted infections, such as

       Syphilis, genital herpes

       Chlamydial infection

       Human papillomavirus (HPV)

       Gonorrhea or bacterial vaginosis

Pathogenesis of HIV

Two main systems which are targets of HIV

       Immune system



       Profound immunosuppression

       Depletion of CD4+ T- cells

       Infections & impairment of function

       Macrophages and dendritic cells are main targets

Sequence of events

AIDS Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Pathogenesis

       Selective tropism and internalisation

       Uncoding and proviral DNA integration

       Budding and cynctia formation

       Cytopathic effect

       Effect on monocyte and macrophages

       B- cell dysfunction

       CNS involvement

Signs & symptoms of HIV

       Many people with HIV do not know they are infected

       No symptoms after infection with HIV

       Others – flu-like illness within several days to weeks after exposure

       Early HIV symptoms – fever, headache, tiredness, and enlarged lymph nodes in the neck

Major symptoms

      Weight loss

      Chronic diarrhoea  for more than one month

      Fever lasting for more than one month


      Recurrent candidiasis in oropharyngeal membrane

      Lymph adenopathy

      Persistent cough for more than 1 month

      Pruritic dermatitis

      The infections that happen with AIDS are called opportunistic infections

      Pneumonia caused by Pneumocystis

      brain infection with toxoplasmosis which can cause trouble thinking or symptoms that mimic a stroke

      widespread infection with a bacteria called MAC (mycobacterium avium complex) which can cause fever and weight loss

      Certain fungi like histoplasmosis, which can cause fever, cough, anemia, and other problems

      lymphoma in (a form of cancer of the lymphoid tissue) in the brain,Vwhich can cause fever and trouble thinking

      A cancer of the soft tissues – Kaposi’s sarcoma, which causes brown, reddish, or purple spots that develop on the skin or in the mouth


       HIV  is a retro virus that causes AIDS and weekens the immune system of the body

       Main causes are IV drug users, multiple sex partners, sex with infected partner, in hospital needle sticks, contamination of blood products, pregnant mothers to babies

       Currently 40 million people live with that and 25 million died

       Free virus after  binding and fusion in to the cell wall causes infection by reverse transcription followed by integration and transcription which forms mature virus

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Hematological Function TestAIDS Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome