DRUGS ACTING ON C N S
DRUGS ACTING ON C N S
In this Unit, we cover fallowing Topic…..
For PDF Notes click on fallowing topics
Sedatives and Hypnotics:
Q1: What are sedatives, and how do they differ from hypnotics? Sedatives are drugs that promote relaxation and reduce anxiety, while hypnotics are used to induce sleep. Both have a calming effect on the CNS, but the primary difference is their intended use.
Q2: What are some common examples of sedatives and hypnotics? Common examples of sedatives include benzodiazepines, while hypnotics include medications like zolpidem (Ambien) and eszopiclone (Lunesta).
Narcotic Analgesics and Their Antagonists:
Q3: What are narcotic analgesics, and how do they work? Narcotic analgesics, often referred to as opioids, are powerful pain-relieving drugs that work by binding to opioid receptors in the CNS, altering the perception of pain.
Q4: What are opioid antagonists, and how do they interact with narcotic analgesics? Opioid antagonists are drugs that block the effects of opioid medications. They are used to reverse the effects of narcotic analgesics, particularly in cases of overdose.
Q5: What are anti-convulsants, and how do they help manage epilepsy? Anti-convulsants, or anti-epileptic drugs, are medications that are used to prevent or reduce seizures in individuals with epilepsy. They work by stabilizing electrical activity in the brain.
Q6: Can anti-convulsants be used for conditions other than epilepsy? Yes, some anti-convulsants are used to treat conditions like bipolar disorder and neuropathic pain.
Analgesic Antipyretics, Non-Opioid Analgesics, and NSAIDs:
Q7: What is the difference between analgesic and antipyretic drugs? Analgesic drugs relieve pain, while antipyretic drugs reduce fever. Some drugs, like non-opioid analgesics and NSAIDs, can have both analgesic and antipyretic effects.
Q8: What are non-opioid analgesics, and how do they work? Non-opioid analgesics, such as acetaminophen, work by reducing the perception of pain in the CNS but do not have the same opioid properties as narcotics.
Q9: What are NSAIDs, and what is their mechanism of action? Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) reduce pain, inflammation, and fever by inhibiting enzymes called cyclooxygenases (COX), which play a role in the body’s inflammatory response.
Q10: What is drug dependence, and how does it relate to CNS drugs? Drug dependence refers to a condition where an individual becomes physically or psychologically reliant on a substance. CNS drugs, particularly opioids and sedatives, can lead to dependence and addiction if used improperly.
Q11: What are general anesthetics, and how do they work? General anesthetics are drugs that induce a reversible loss of consciousness and sensation. They work by affecting neurotransmitter systems in the brain, leading to unconsciousness and muscle relaxation.
Q12: Are there risks associated with the use of general anesthetics? Yes, the use of general anesthetics carries certain risks, including adverse reactions and complications. Anesthesiologists carefully evaluate patients and monitor them during surgical procedures to minimize these risks.