Biochemistry – B. Pharma 2nd Semester Notes Pdf
Scope: Biochemistry notes b pharmacy deals with a complete understanding of the molecular levels of the chemical process associated with living cells. The scope of the subject is providing biochemical facts and the principles to understand the metabolism of nutrient molecules in physiological and pathological conditions.
It is also emphasizing the genetic organization of the mammalian genome and the hetero & autocatalytic functions of DNA.
Objectives: Upon completion of the course student shell able to
1. Understand the catalytic role of enzymes, the importance of enzyme inhibitors in the design of new drugs, and the therapeutic and diagnostic applications of enzymes.
2. Understand the metabolism of nutrient molecules in physiological and pathological conditions.
3. Understand the genetic organization of the mammalian genome and the functions of DNA in the synthesis of RNAs and proteins.
Biochemistry UNIT I
Introduction, classification, chemical nature, and biological role of carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, amino acids, and proteins.
Concept of free energy, endergonic and exergonic reaction, Relationship between free energy, enthalpy, and entropy; Redox potential.
Energy-rich compounds; classification; biological significances of ATP and cyclic AMP
Biochemistry UNIT II
Glycolysis – Pathway, energetics, and significance
Citric acid cycle- Pathway, energetics, and significance
HMP shunt and its significance;
Glucose-6-Phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency
Glycogen metabolism Pathways and glycogen storage diseases (GSD)
Pathway and its Significance
Hormonal Regulation of blood glucose level and Diabetes mellitus
Electron transport chain (ETC) and its mechanism.
Oxidative phosphorylation & its mechanism and substrate phosphorylation
Inhibitors ETC and oxidative phosphorylation/Uncouplers level
Biochemistry UNIT III
β-Oxidation of saturated fatty acid (Palmitic acid)
Formation and utilization of ketone bodies; ketoacidosis
De novo synthesis of fatty acids (Palmitic acid)
The biological significance of cholesterol and conversion of cholesterol into bile acids, steroid hormones,s, and vitamin D
Disorders of lipid metabolism: Hypercholesterolemia, atherosclerosis, fatty liver, and obesity.
Amino acid metabolism
General reactions of amino acid metabolism: Transamination, deamination & decarboxylation, urea cycle, and its disorders
Catabolism of phenylalanine and tyrosine and their metabolic disorders (Phenylketonuria, Albinism, alkaptonuria, tyrosinemia)
Synthesis and significance of biological substances; 5-HT, melatonin, dopamine, noradrenaline, adrenaline
Catabolism of heme; hyperbilirubinemia and jaundice
Biochemistry UNIT IV
Nucleic acid metabolism and genetic information transfer
Biosynthesis of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides
Catabolism of purine nucleotides and Hyperuricemia and Gout disease
Organization of mammalian genome
Structure of DNA and RNA and their functions DNA replication (semi-conservative model) Transcription or RNA synthesis
Genetic code, Translation, or Protein synthesis and inhibitors
Biochemistry UNIT V
Introduction, properties, nomenclature, and IUB classification of enzymes
Enzyme kinetics (Michaelis plot, Line Weaver Burke plot) Enzyme inhibitors with examples
Regulation of enzymes: enzyme induction and repression, allosteric enzymes regulation
Therapeutic and diagnostic applications of enzymes and isoenzymes
Coenzymes –Structure and biochemical functions
Biochemistry Short Notes for B. Pharmacy:
Biochemistry plays a crucial role in the field of pharmacy as it provides a fundamental understanding of the chemical processes and molecules that are essential for life and are involved in drug action, metabolism, and therapeutic interventions. Here are some key points regarding biochemistry for B. Pharmacy:
Biomolecules are the building blocks of life and include carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.
Carbohydrates are important for energy production and cell structure.
Lipids serve as energy reserves, structural components of cell membranes, and signaling molecules.
Proteins have diverse functions, including enzymatic catalysis, structural support, and regulation of cellular processes.
Nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) are involved in the storage and transmission of genetic information.
Enzymes are specialized proteins that catalyze biochemical reactions in the body.
They play a crucial role in drug metabolism, as many drugs are metabolized by enzymes in the liver.
Understanding enzyme kinetics, inhibition, and activation is important for drug design and optimization.
Metabolism refers to the chemical processes that occur in living organisms to maintain life.
It involves the conversion of nutrients into energy and the synthesis and breakdown of biomolecules.
Drug metabolism involves the enzymatic transformation of drugs into metabolites, which can be pharmacologically active or inactive.
Pharmacokinetics deals with the study of drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME).
It examines how drugs are absorbed into the body, distributed to their target sites, metabolized, and eliminated.
Biochemical processes influence the pharmacokinetics of drugs and their interactions with biological systems.
Drug Targets and Receptors:
Drug targets are specific molecules in the body, such as enzymes, receptors, or ion channels, that drugs interact with.
Receptors are proteins located on the cell surface or within cells that bind to drugs and initiate a cellular response.
Understanding drug-receptor interactions is crucial for drug design, efficacy, and safety.
Biochemical techniques are used to study the structure, function, and interactions of biomolecules.
Techniques such as spectrophotometry, chromatography, electrophoresis, and enzyme assays are employed in drug analysis, formulation development, and quality control.
Clinical biochemistry focuses on the application of biochemical principles and techniques in diagnosing and monitoring diseases.
It involves the analysis of biochemical markers in blood and other body fluids to assess organ function, detect abnormalities, and evaluate the efficacy of drug therapy.
1. Qualitative analysis of carbohydrates (Glucose, Fructose, Lactose, Maltose, Sucrose, and starch)
2. Identification tests for Proteins (albumin and Casein)
3. Quantitative analysis of reducing sugars (DNSA method) and Proteins (Biuret method)
4. Qualitative analysis of urine for abnormal constituents
5. Determination of blood creatinine
6. Determination of blood sugar
7. Determination of serum total cholesterol
8. Preparation of buffer solution and measurement of pH
9. Study of enzymatic hydrolysis of starch
10. Determination of Salivary amylase activity
11. Study the effect of Temperature on Salivary amylase activity.
12. Study the effect of substrate concentration on salivary amylase activity.
Biochemistry Recommended Books (Latest Editions)
1. Principles of Biochemistry by Lehninger.
2. Harper’s Biochemistry by Robert K. Murry, Daryl K. Granner, and Victor W. Rodwell.
3. Biochemistry by Stryer.
4. Biochemistry by D. Satyanarayan and U.Chakrapani
5. Textbook of Biochemistry by Rama Rao.
6. Textbook of Biochemistry by Deb.
7. Outlines of Biochemistry by Conn and Stumpf
8. Practical Biochemistry by R.C. Gupta and S. Bhargavan.
9. Introduction of Practical Biochemistry by David T. Plummer. (3rd Edition)
10. Practical Biochemistry for Medical Students by Rajagopal and Ramakrishna.
11. Practical Biochemistry by Harold Varley.