HOSPITAL AND CLINICAL PHARMACY
D. Pharma 2nd Year Notes
Hospital and Clinical Pharmacy – D. Pharma Annotations
Being a D. Pharma (Diploma in Pharmacy) student or professional necessitates a profound comprehension of the fundamental tenets of hospital and clinical pharmacy. Here are some pivotal annotations elucidating this subject:
1. Surveying Hospital Pharmacy:
– Hospital pharmacy constitutes a specialized realm of pharmaceutical expertise, encompassing the formulation, dispensation, and administration of medications within a healthcare facility or hospital premises.
– The cardinal objective of hospital pharmacy pertains to ensuring the secure, efficacious, and judicious application of medications for the benefit of patients.
– Hospital pharmacists operate as integral members of the healthcare team, synergistically collaborating with physicians, nurses, and other medical professionals to optimize patient care.
2. Duties and Obligations of Hospital Pharmacists:
– Dispensation of Medications: Hospital pharmacists shoulder the responsibility of accurately dispensing medications, as prescribed by medical practitioners, to both inpatients and outpatients.
– Medication Oversight: They meticulously review patient medication profiles to detect potential drug interactions, allergies, or contraindications that may impinge upon treatment outcomes.
– Patient Guidance: Hospital pharmacists furnish indispensable information to patients and caregivers, pertaining to medication utilization, potential side effects, and the paramount importance of adhering to treatment regimens.
– Intravenous Admixtures: Within the hospital milieu, pharmacists are intricately involved in the compounding and supervision of intravenous (IV) medications, ensuring precise dosing and stringent sterility.
– Medication Safety: Hospital pharmacists actively participate in medication safety initiatives, proactively implementing error prevention strategies and diligently reporting medication-related errors.
– Pharmaceutical Information Services: They assume the mantle of a credible and dependable reservoir of drug-related information for healthcare professionals and patients alike, expertly addressing queries concerning drug interactions, dosages, and untoward effects.
– Formulary Management: Hospital pharmacists play a pivotal role in the selection of medications that constitute the hospital formulary, diligently factoring in aspects such as safety, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness.
– Clinical Rounds: Clinical pharmacists actively partake in ward rounds or interdisciplinary conferences, offering their invaluable expertise in drug therapy and contributing to the decision-making process surrounding patient care.
3. The Realm of Clinical Pharmacy:
– Clinical pharmacy entails the direct application of pharmaceutical knowledge to patient care, with the aim of optimizing medication therapy outcomes.
– Clinical pharmacists are actively involved in patient assessments, medication management, and vigilant monitoring for both efficacy and adverse effects.
– They forge collaborative alliances with physicians, crafting personalized medication regimens and adapting therapies based on patient responses.
– Clinical pharmacists wield substantial influence in disease management, particularly in the context of chronic conditions, ensuring that patients attain the most optimal health outcomes possible.
4. Scrutinizing Drug Utilization:
– Hospital pharmacists diligently scrutinize medication usage patterns to foster the rational use of drugs, curtail medication-related predicaments, and exert control over costs.
– Such scrupulous reviews facilitate the identification of inappropriate medication employment, potential drug interactions, and opportune moments for therapeutic optimization.
Recall, these annotations furnish a succinct overview of hospital and clinical pharmacy for D. Pharma students. As your journey in academia and career advances, you will delve ever deeper into diverse facets of pharmaceutical practice and its profound significance in the realm of patient care.
Syllabus Part-I: Hospital Pharmacy:
Hospital- Definition, Function, classifications based on various criteria, organization, Management, and health delivery system in India.
Hospital Pharmacy: Definition Functions and objectives of Hospital pharmaceutical services. Location, Layout, Flow chart of materials and men.
Personnel and facilities requirements including equipment based on individual and basic needs. Requirements and abilities required for Hospital pharmacists.
Drug Distribution System in Hospitals. Out-patient service, In-patient services- types of services detailed discussion of unit Dose system, Floor ward stock system, satellite pharmacy services, central sterile services, Bedside pharmacy.
Manufacturing: Economical considerations, estimation of demand.
Sterile manufacture- Large and small volume parenteral, facilities, requirements, layout production planning, manpower requirements.
Non-sterile manufacture- Liquid orals, externals, Bulk concentrates. Procurement of stores and testing of raw materials.
Nomenclature and uses of surgical instruments and Hospital equipment and health accessories.
P.T.C.(pharmacy Therapeutic Committee)
Hospital Formulary system and its organization, functioning, and composition.
Drug Information Service and Drug Information Bulletin.
Surgical dressing like cotton, gauze, bandages, and adhesive tapes including their pharmacopoeial tests for quality. Other hospital supplies eg. I.V. sets, B.G. sets, Ryals tubes, Catheters, Syringes, etc.
Application of computers in the maintenance of records, inventory control, medication monitoring, drug information, and data storage and retrieval in hospital retail pharmacy establishment.
Syllabus Part II: Clinical Pharmacy:
Introduction to Clinical pharmacy practice- Definition, scope.
Modern dispensing aspects- Pharmacists and patient counseling and advice for the use of common drugs, medication history.
Common daily terminology used in the practice of Medicine.
Disease, manifestation, and pathophysiology including salient symptoms to understand the disease like Tuberculosis, Hepatitis, Rheumatoid Arthritis, Cardio-vascular diseases, Epilepsy, Diabetes, Peptic Ulcer, and Hypertension.
Physiological parameters with their significance.
Drug Interactions: Definition and introduction. Mechanism of Drug Interaction. Drug-drug interaction with reference to analgesics, diuretics, cardiovascular drugs, and Gastrointestinal agents. Vitamins and Hypoglycemic agents. Drug-food interaction.
Adverse Drug Reaction: Definition and significance. Drug-Induced Diseases and Teratogenicity.
Drugs in Clinical Toxicity- Introduction, general treatment of poisoning, systemic antidotes, Treatment of insecticide poisoning, heavy metal poison, Narcotic drugs, Barbiturate, Organo-phosphorus poisons.
Drug dependences, drug abuse, addictive drugs and their treatment, complications.
Bio-availability of drugs, including factors affecting it.
Books Recommended: ( Latest editions)
1. Remington’s pharmaceutical sciences.
2. Testing of raw materials used in (1).
3. Evaluation of surgical dressings.
4. Sterilization of surgical instruments, glassware, and other hospital supplies.
5. Handling and use of data processing equipment.
What Role Do Hospital Pharmacists Play in Patient Care?
Hospital pharmacists assume a vital role in safeguarding the safety and efficacy of medication use, synergistically cooperating with healthcare teams, educating patients, and expertly managing medication therapy.
What Constitutes Clinical Pharmacy?
Clinical pharmacy centers around the optimization of pharmacotherapy personalized to meet the distinctive needs of each patient, factoring in medical history and genetic makeup.
How Do Pharmacists Manage Adverse Drug Reactions?
Pharmacists adeptly identify and resolve drug-related issues to deftly manage adverse drug reactions, thus minimizing potential harm to patients.
What Are Some Challenges Faced by Hospital Pharmacists?
Hospital pharmacists confront challenges tied to drug shortages, medication errors, and the seamless integration of pharmacy services into healthcare systems.
How Is Technology Influencing Hospital and Clinical Pharmacy?
Technological advancements, such as automated dispensing systems and telepharmacy services, streamline workflows and elevate patient care in hospital and clinical pharmacy settings.