Pharmaceutical Inorganic Chemistry – B. Pharma 1st Semester Notes
Scope: Pharmaceutical Inorganic Chemistry deals with the monographs of inorganic drugs and pharmaceuticals.
Objectives: Upon completion of the course student shall be able to know the sources of impurities and methods to determine the impurities in inorganic drugs and pharmaceuticals and understand the medicinal and pharmaceutical importance of inorganic compounds
Pharmaceutical Inorganic Chemistry UNIT I
Impurities in pharmaceutical substances: History of Pharmacopoeia, Sources and types of impurities, the principle involved in the limit test for Chloride, Sulphate, Iron, Arsenic, Lead and Heavy metals, modified limit test for Chloride and Sulphate
General methods of preparation, assay for the compounds superscripted with an asterisk (*), properties and medicinal uses of inorganic compounds belonging to the following classes
Pharmaceutical Inorganic Chemistry UNIT II
Acids, Bases, and Buffers: Buffer equations and buffer capacity in general, buffers in pharmaceutical systems, preparation, stability, buffered isotonic solutions, measurements of tonicity, calculations, and methods of adjusting isotonicity.
Major extra and intracellular electrolytes: Functions of major physiological ions, Electrolytes used in the replacement therapy: Sodium chloride*, Potassium chloride, Calcium gluconate* and Oral Rehydration Salt (ORS), Physiological acid-base balance.
Dental products: Dentifrices, the role of fluoride in the treatment of dental caries, Desensitizing agents, Calcium carbonate, Sodium fluoride, and Zinc eugenol cement.
Pharmaceutical Inorganic Chemistry UNIT III
Acidifiers: Ammonium chloride* and Dil. HCl
Antacid: Ideal properties of antacids, combinations of antacids, Sodium Bicarbonate*, Aluminum hydroxide gel, Magnesium hydroxide mixture
Cathartics: Magnesium sulphate, Sodium orthophosphate, Kaolin, and Bentonite
Antimicrobials: Mechanism, classification, Potassium permanganate, Boric acid, Hydrogen peroxide*, Chlorinated lime*, Iodine and its preparations
Pharmaceutical Inorganic Chemistry UNIT IV
Expectorants: Potassium iodide, Ammonium chloride*. Emetics: Copper sulphate*, Sodium potassium tartarate Haematinics: Ferrous sulphate*, Ferrous gluconate
Poison and Antidote: Sodium thiosulphate*, Activated charcoal, Sodium nitrite333
Astringents: Zinc Sulphate, Potash Alum
Pharmaceutical Inorganic Chemistry UNIT V
Radiopharmaceuticals: Radioactivity, Measurement of radioactivity, Properties of α, β, γ radiations, Half-life, radioisotopes and study of radioisotopes – Sodium iodide I131, Storage conditions, precautions & pharmaceutical application of radioactive substances.
Pharmaceutical Inorganic Chemistry Notes 2nd Semester PDF Download
Pharmaceutical Inorganic Chemistry Short Notes:
Pharmaceutical Inorganic Chemistry 2nd Sem Notes refers to the branch of chemistry that deals with the study of inorganic compounds and their applications in the field of pharmacy. Inorganic compounds play a crucial role in the development of pharmaceuticals, as they can exhibit various properties and functions that are essential for drug design, formulation, and therapeutic applications.
Here are some key points about Pharmaceutical Inorganic Chemistry:
1. Inorganic compounds: Inorganic compounds used in pharmaceuticals include metal complexes, metal oxides, metal salts, and metalloids. These compounds possess unique chemical and physical properties that can be exploited for drug delivery, targeting specific diseases, and enhancing drug efficacy.
2. Metal-based drugs: Metal complexes have gained significant attention in pharmaceutical research. Some examples include platinum-based anticancer drugs like cisplatin and carboplatin, which are widely used in chemotherapy. Other metal-based drugs include iron supplements, radiopharmaceuticals for medical imaging, and metal-based antimicrobial agents.
3. Ligands: Inorganic compounds can act as ligands, forming coordination complexes with metals. Ligands can modify the properties of metal ions and influence their reactivity and biological activity. Chelating ligands, such as EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid), are used to bind metal ions tightly and form stable complexes.
4. Drug delivery systems: Inorganic compounds are utilized in the development of drug delivery systems. Nanoparticles, such as gold and silver nanoparticles, can serve as carriers for targeted drug delivery, improving drug solubility, stability, and bioavailability. They can also be functionalized with specific ligands to target specific cells or tissues.
5. Catalysis: Inorganic compounds play a vital role in catalysis, which is the acceleration of chemical reactions. Enzyme mimetics, such as metalloporphyrins, can mimic the catalytic activity of enzymes and find applications in pharmaceutical synthesis and drug metabolism studies.
6. Diagnostic agents: Inorganic compounds are used as contrast agents in medical imaging techniques like magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT). Gadolinium-based complexes are commonly employed as MRI contrast agents, while iodine-based compounds are used in CT scans.
7. Toxicity and safety: Pharmaceutical Inorganic Chemistry also focuses on studying the toxicity and safety aspects of inorganic compounds. Understanding the potential adverse effects and interactions of metal-based drugs with biological systems is crucial for drug development and patient safety.
Pharmaceutical Inorganic Chemistry combines the principles of inorganic chemistry with pharmaceutical science to develop new therapeutic agents, drug delivery systems, and diagnostic tools, and understand the interactions between inorganic compounds and biological systems. It plays a significant role in advancing the field of pharmacy and improving healthcare outcomes.
Pharmaceutical Inorganic Chemistry (Practical)
I Limit tests for the following ions
Limit test for Chlorides and Sulphates
Modified limit test for Chlorides and Sulphates
Limit test for Iron
Limit test for Heavy metals
Limit test for Lead
Limit test for Arsenic
II Identification test
III Test for purity
Swelling power of Bentonite
Neutralizing capacity of aluminum hydroxide gel
Determination of potassium iodate and iodine in potassium Iodide
IV Preparation of inorganic pharmaceuticals
Boric acid Potash alum Ferrous sulfate
Pharmaceutical Inorganic Chemistry Notes 2nd Sem Recommended Books (Latest Editions)
1. A.H. Beckett & J.B. Stenlake’s, Practical Pharmaceutical Chemistry Vol I & II, Stahlone Press of the University of London, 4th edition.
2. A.I. Vogel, Text Book of Quantitative Inorganic analysis
3. P. Gundu Rao, Inorganic Pharmaceutical Chemistry, 3rd Edition
4. M.L Schroff, Inorganic Pharmaceutical Chemistry
5. Bentley and Driver’s Textbook of Pharmaceutical Chemistry
6. Anand & Chatwal, Inorganic Pharmaceutical Chemistry
7. Indian Pharmacopoeia