History of Pharmacy in India – Pharmaceutics – I B. Pharma 1st Semester

of Pharmacy


At the end of this lecture, student will be able to

• Explain the different systems of Medicine

• Explain the origin of Pharmacy education in India

• Reproduce the pharmacist’s oath

• Explain the relevance of pharmaceutical ethics

Systems of

1. Allopathy (or
allopathic system of medicine)

• Discipline advocating therapy with remedies that produce
effects differing from those of the disease treated

• Also called ‘modern’, ‘western’, or ‘scientific’ medicine

2. Alternative /
Complementary system of medicine

Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy

– Chiropractic

– Energy Medicine

– Various forms of acupuncture

– Traditional Chinese medicine

– Christian faith healing

Chiropractic is a
form of alternative medicine that focuses on diagnosis and treatment of
mechanical disorders of the musculoskeletal system, especially the spine, under
the belief that these disorders affect general health via the nervous system

Energy Medicine is –
heal the body by activating its natural healing energies; you also heal the
body by restoring energies that have become weak, disturbed, or out of balance.

Acupuncture –
Acupuncture (from Latin, ‘acus’ (needle) + ‘punctura’ (to puncture) is a form
of alternative medicine and a key component of traditional Chinese medicine
involving inserting thin needles into the body at acupuncture points

Traditional Chinese
using herbal preparations

Christian faith
Faith healing refers to ritualistic practices of communal prayer
and gestures (such as laying on of hands) that are claimed to solicit divine
intervention in initiating spiritual and literal healing.

System of Medicine


• Use of plant-based medicines and treatments, with some
animal products, and added minerals including sulfur, arsenic, lead, copper

System of Medicine

• System developed in a belief that “Like cures Like”

• Founder of Homeopathy – is Dr. Samuel Christian, Frederic
Hahnemann (1755-1843)

System of Medicine

• Originated in Greece (Unan)

• Hippocrates (460 – 377 BC), the “Father of Medicine” freed
medicine from the realm of superstition and magic and gave it the status of

• The teachings of Hippocrates form the basis of the
theoretical frame work of Unani Medicine

• The fundamentals of this system are based on Hippocrates’
Humoral Theory

• According to Unani philosophy the health and illness of a person
depends upon the balance of 4 humours in the body. They are Dam (Blood),
Balgham (Phlegm), Safra (Yellow bile), Sauda (Black bile) remain in equilibrium

“Let food be the medicine and medicine be the
food” – Hippocrates

System of Medicine

• Based on a belief that the body heals itself using a
supernatural vital energy that guides bodily processes

• Naturopathy or naturopathic medicine is a form of
alternative medicine employing a wide array of “natural” modalities,
including homeopathy, herbalism, and acupuncture, as well as diet and lifestyle

• The term naturopathy was coined in 1895 by John Scheel and
purchased by Benedict Lust, the “father of U.S. naturopathy“

• The ideology and methods of naturopathy are based on
vitalism and self-healing, rather than evidence-based medicine

System of Medicine

• Oldest medical system known to mankind

• System of Siddha medicine originated in Southern India, in
the state of Tamil Nadu

• Practiced more than 10,000 years ago

•The word Siddha comes from the word Siddhi

• Means an object to be attained perfection or heavenly

• Siddha focused to “Ashtamahasiddhi,” the eight
supernatural power

• Those who attained or achieved the above said powers are
known as Siddhars.

• Belief that disease is caused due to disturbance in normal
equilibrium of the three humors (Vaadham, Pittham and Kabam)

System of Medicine

• Emphasizes diagnosis, treatment and prevention of mechanical
disorders of the musculoskeletal system-especially the spine

• The belief is that these disorders affect general health
via the nervous system

Origin of Pharmaceutical Profession in India

• The western / Allopathic system introduced by British traders

• Costly treatment

• Meant for the British rulers and the rich Indians

• The other Indians preferred Ayurvedic medicine

• By 19th Century, it became popular among all people

• Pharmacy profession started with opening of chemist shop
in 1811 by Scotch M Bathgate

• Opened in Kolkata

• All people who practiced pharmacy were called Compounders

• In 1901 Bengal Chemical and Pharmaceutical Works

• Founded by Acharya Prafulla Chandra Ray

• Established in Calcutta

• Indian chemist, educator and entrepreneur

• 1903: A small factory at Parel (Bombay) by Prof. T.K.

• 1907: Alembic Chemical Works at Baroda by Prof. T.K.

• H.W. Honey, the “first qualified person” to get
recognition as chemist and druggist in India in 1866

•“First Pharmacopoeia of India” under British Monarchy in India
was published in 1868.

Top 10
Publicly Listed pharmaceutical companies in India




Sun Pharmaceutical


Lupin Ltd


Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories




Aurobindo Pharma


Cadila Healthcare


Glenmark Pharmaceuticals


GlaxoSmithKline Pharmaceuticals Ltd


Divis Laboratories


Torrent Pharmaceuticals


Origin of
Pharmaceutical Education in India

•Regular two years course for “Chemists and Druggists
Diploma” started at Madras Medical College, Chennai in 1874

• Pharmacy education pattern was based on the pattern of
Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain

• A formal training of the compounders was started in 1881
in Bengal.

• “Chemists and Druggists Diploma” – equivalent to that the
diploma issued by Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain, London in 1893

• The course included (2 Years study + 3 months practical
training + 1 year internship)

• Government of India on 11th August 1930, appointed a committee
under the chairmanship of Late Col. R.N.Chopra

• Committee published its report in 1931

• Reported that there was no recognized specialized
profession of Pharmacy.

• To check the problems of Pharmacy in India and recommend
the measures to be taken

• In 1932 Prof. M.L. Shroff who obtained his M.S degree in Chemistry
from MIT joined Banaras Hindu University (BHU), Varanasi

• He suggested the inclusion of pharmaceutical chemistry as
a subject course at degree level

• Pandit Madan Mohan Malviya was the Vice Chancellor of BHU at
that time

• In 1932 Prof. Schroff introduced Pharmaceutical Chemistry as
the main subject in the B.Sc. course in BHU

• From 1934 an integrated 2-years B.Sc course with the
subjects -Pharma chemistry, Pharmacy and Pharmacognosy, was introduced

• In 1937, a Regular degree course (B.Pharm) started at BHU
under the leadership of Prof. M.L. Shroff

• Prof. Mahadeva Lal Schroff or Prof. M. L. Schroff is the
pioneer and Father of Indian Pharmacy Education

• In 1940 Prof. Schroff introduced M.Pharm at BHU, Varanasi

• Mr. Subhadra Kumar Patni became the first Pharmacy Graduate
in India in 1940

• Post of Hospital Pharmacist created at KEM Hospital (King Edward
Memorial Hospital), Mumbai, 1941

• Modern pharmacy services started at Christian Medical
College and Hospital, Vellore; Jaslok hospital, JJ Hospital and other hospitals
in India

• Gorakh Prasad Srivastava became the first Post Graduate in
Pharmacy from BHU in 1943

• PhD degree in Pharmaceutical Sciences started in 1945 at

• The University of the Punjab, Lahore, was the next to introduce
pharmacy course in 1944

• Dr. Khem Singh Grewal was the founder of pharmaceutical
education at the Punjab University

Pharmacist’s Oath

• I Swear by the code of Ethics of Pharmacy Council of India
in relation to the community and shall act as an integral part of health care

• I shall uphold the laws and standards governing my

• I shall strive to perfect and enlarge my knowledge to
contribute to the advancement of pharmacy and public health.

• I shall follow the system, which I consider best for pharmaceutical
care and counseling of patients.

• I shall endeavour to discover and manufacture drugs of quality
to alleviate sufferings of humanity.

• I shall hold in confidence the knowledge gained about the
patients in connection with professional practice and never divulge unless
compelled to do so by the law.

• I shall associate with organizations having their
objectives for betterment of the profession of Pharmacy and make contribution
to carry out the work of those organisations.

• While I continue to keep this Oath inviolated, may it be
granted to me to enjoy life and the practice of pharmacy respected by all, at
all times!

• Should I trespass and violate this oath, may the reverse
be my lot!


1. Systems of Medicine- include Allopathic and Alternative systems

2. Alternative systems of medicine are: Ayurveda, Yoga and
Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy, Chiropractic, Energy Medicine,
Various forms of acupuncture, Traditional Chinese medicine, And Christian Faith

3. Prof. M.L Schroff was the pioneer of Pharmacy Education
in India

4. Pharmacy course was first started in BHU

5. Pharmacists Oath- encompasses the ethics to be followed
by a pharmacist in relation to:

– His trade

– His Profession

– His Customers

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