At the end of this session, students will be able to:

• Identify the speech sounds of a language

• Comprehend the vowel sounds

• Recognize the phonetic symbols

• Apply phonetic sounds for correct pronunciation

• Identify the organs of speech

• Identify consonant sounds

• Practice consonant sounds

• Comprehend the articulation of sounds

• Demonstrate correct pronunciation using appropriate consonant and vowel sounds


Speech sound refers to the set of distinctive sound in any
given language.

e.g. “o”

Phonetics is a study of speech sound. It deals with

In English, 26 letters produces 44 sounds which can be differentiated

• Vowels

• Consonants

Importance of Phonetics

• Understand the speech of sound

• Correct pronunciation of the words

• Clarity in pronunciation

Vowels Sounds –Introduction

Vowel is a sound produced when there is no obstruction to
the airstream anywhere in the phonatory organs.

There are twenty vowel sounds.

Vowels are divided into two categories based on the sound

• Single Vowel Sounds or Monophthongs

• Double Vowel Sounds or Diphthongs


A vowel that has a single perceived auditory quality.

Monophthong shows that a vowel is spoken with exactly one tone and one mouth position. For example “teeth”, the sound of the “ee”, nothing changes for that sound.

Short vowels

Word examples

Long Vowels

Word examples


Thin, sit, rich, kick, hit.


Need, beat, team.


Went, intend, send, letter.


Third, turn, worse, world, word.


Cat, hand, nap, flat, have.


Glass, half, car, arch, hard.


Fun, love, money, one, London, come.


Talk, law, bored, yawn, jaw.


Put, look, should, cook, book, look.


Few, boot, lose, gloomy, fruit, chew.


Rob, top, watch, squat, sausage.


Alive, again, mother.


Single sound produced with pairing of two vowels in a
specific sequence.

Organs of Speech

Phoneme and Syllable

A phoneme (speech sound) is the smallest unit of sound in a word.  e.g. – ‘a’ , ‘ai’ , ‘p’

À syllable is a word or part of a word that contains one
vowel sound. e.g. – Car, bas/ket, croc/o/dile

Consonant Sounds: Introduction

Consonants are non-vowel sounds.

There are 24 consonant sounds in English:

• 6 plosives: /p b t d k g/

• 9 fricatives: /f v θ ð s z ʃ ʒ h/

• 2 affricates: /tʃ dʒ/

• 3 nasals: /m n ŋ/

• 1 lateral-approximant: /l/

• 3 approximants: /w j r/

Stops or Plosives

Stops or plosives are consonant sounds that are formed by completely
stopping airflow

p                   pen, copy, happen

b                   back, baby, job

t                   tea, tight, button

d                   day, ladder, odd

k                   key, clock, school

g                   get, giggle, ghost


Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.

Articulators: Any of the vocal organs above the larynx,
including the tongue, lips, teeth, and hard palate

f                   fat, coffee, rough, photo

v                   view, heavy, move

θ                   thing, author, path

ð                   this, other, smooth

s                   soon, cease, sister

z                   zero, music, roses, buzz

ʃ                   ship, sure, national

ʒ                   pleasure, vision

h                   hot, whole, ahead


A phoneme which combines a plosive with an immediately following fricative or spirant sharing the same place of articulation

tʃ                   church, match, nature

dʒ                   judge, age, soldier


Nasal sounds are produced by sending a stream of air through the nose.”

m                  more, hammer, sum

n                   nice, know, funny, sun

ŋ                   ring, anger, thanks, sung




A lateral is an l-like consonant in which the airstream proceeds along the sides of the tongue, but it is blocked by the tongue from going through the middle of the mouth.

l                   light, valley, feel


An approximant consonant is a consonant that sounds in some ways like a vowel.

r                   right, wrong, sorry, arrange

j                   yet, use, beauty, few

w                 wet, one, when, queen

Ways to Articulate Effectively

• Listen to yourself speak

• Monitor your speed

• Eliminate filler words

• Focus on the final sound

• Study other speakers

• Speak with confidence

• Think before you speak

• Address your weaknesses

To Sound More Articulate:

Make a special effort to pronounce the final sound in a word
and use its energy to carry over to the following word.


• Definition-Phonetics is the study of speech sound

• Importance of phonetics

• Phonetics-Vowel and Consonants

– Monophthongs-Symbols with examples

– Diphthongs-Symbols with examples

• There are 24 consonant sounds in most English accents, conveyed by 21 letters of the regular English alphabet (sometimes in combination, e.g., ch and th)

• Manner of articulation like plosives, nasal, affricative
and fricatives

• Ways to effective articulation


All data and content provided in this presentation are taken
from the reference books, internet – websites and links, for informational purposes only.

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