Hypoglycemic agent

Hypoglycemic
agent

Definition: The drugs
which are used to lower the blood sugar are called as hypoglycemic agents.

Classifications
of Hypoglycemic agent:

1. Hormones: e.g. Insulin
and its preparations

2. Oral
hypoglycemic agents:

a. Sulphonylureas:
e.g.
chlorpropamide, Tolbutamide, Glibenclamide

b. Biguanides:
e.g.
Phenformine, Metformin

3. Plant products:
guar gum

Insulin

It is hormone produced by beta cell of islets of langerhans of
pancreas.

It is polypeptide containing 51 amino acid arranged in two chains
namely A and B having 21 and 30 amino acid respectively.

The two chains are connected by two disulphide bridges (-s-s bond
of cysteine) (source: pancreas of pig or Ox)

Properties of Insulin:

It is white powder.

It is slightly soluble in water

It dissolve in dilute solution of mineral and acid

It is inactivated by photolytic enzymes

It is soluble in alkali hydroxide.

Stability and storage: it is sensitive to heat and light,
hence it is stored in well closed containers at room temperature below 8 degree
Celsius.

Insulin injection is stored in multidose containers at room
temperature between 20 and 8 degree Celsius and should not be allowed to freeze.

The label
on the containers should be bear
 

1. Number of unit per ml.

2. The animal source of insulin

3. Expiry date

4. Storage condition with precaution
that

a) It should not be allowed to freeze.

b) The containers should be shaken
gently before withdrawal of dose.

Uses of Insulin:

To control diabetes mellitus or to
treat insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.

To regulate carbohydrate metabolism.

To treat gyperkalaemia.

To treat severe ketoacidosis or coma

Pharmaceutical formulations of Insulin:

Insulin injection

Neutral Insulin injection.

Biphasic Insulin injection 

Globin zinc Insulin injection

Isophane Insulin injection

Protamine zinc Insulin injection

Insulin zinc suspension

Chlorpropamide

Structure
of Chlorpropamide