Definition: The drugs
which are used to lower the blood sugar are called as hypoglycemic agents.
of Hypoglycemic agent:
1. Hormones: e.g. Insulin
and its preparations
e.g. chlorpropamide, Tolbutamide, Glibenclamide
e.g. Phenformine, Metformin
3. Plant products:
• It is hormone produced by beta cell of islets of langerhans of
• It is polypeptide containing 51 amino acid arranged in two chains
namely A and B having 21 and 30 amino acid respectively.
• The two chains are connected by two disulphide bridges (-s-s bond
of cysteine) (source: pancreas of pig or Ox)
Properties of Insulin:
• It is white powder.
• It is slightly soluble in water
• It dissolve in dilute solution of mineral and acid
• It is inactivated by photolytic enzymes
• It is soluble in alkali hydroxide.
Stability and storage: it is sensitive to heat and light,
hence it is stored in well closed containers at room temperature below 8 degree
• Insulin injection is stored in multidose containers at room
temperature between 20 and 8 degree Celsius and should not be allowed to freeze.
• The label
on the containers should be bear
1. Number of unit per ml.
2. The animal source of insulin
3. Expiry date
4. Storage condition with precaution
a) It should not be allowed to freeze.
b) The containers should be shaken
gently before withdrawal of dose.
Uses of Insulin:
• To control diabetes mellitus or to
treat insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.
• To regulate carbohydrate metabolism.
• To treat gyperkalaemia.
• To treat severe ketoacidosis or coma
Pharmaceutical formulations of Insulin:
• Insulin injection
• Neutral Insulin injection.
• Biphasic Insulin injection
• Globin zinc Insulin injection
• Isophane Insulin injection
• Protamine zinc Insulin injection
• Insulin zinc suspension