Basics in Organic Chemistry

Basics in Organic
Chemistry

Contents

• Definition of organic chemistry

• Ionic bond

• Covalent bond

• Sigma bond

• Pi bond

• Different functional groups present in organic compounds

Learning
Objectives

At the end of this lecture, student will be able to

• Explain different types of chemical bonds

• Explain fundamentals of organic chemistry

What Is
Organic Chemistry?

• Chemistry of compounds that contain the element carbon

• Compounds in living things, termed organic compounds

Chemical
Bond

• Bonding is the joining of two atoms in a stable
arrangement

• Ionic bond

• Covalent bond

Ionic Bond

Covalent Bond

Property of
Carbon

• Catenation

CH3-CH2-CH2-CH3

CH3-CH2-CH2-CH-CH2-CH2-CH3

Sigma (σ)
Bond and (π) Bond

• Sigma bond is formed by axial overlapping of atomic
orbitals

• Pi bond are formed by lateral /sidewise overlapping

• Sigma bond is stronger than pi bond

Classification
of Compounds /Functional Groups 

Summary

• Ionic bond, and covalent bond are found in in compounds

• Catenation is a special property of carbon

• Sigma bond is formed by axial overlapping of atomic
orbitals

• Pi bond are formed by lateral /sidewise overlapping

• Sigma bond is stronger than pi bond

• Important functional groups are   alkyl halide, alcohol, carboxylic acid, aldehydes
and ketones

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