Discuss the source, method of production, chemical constituents, chemical tests, uses and adulterants of Wool fat Bees wax

Wool fat & Bees wax

Contents

Source, method of production, chemical constituents,
chemical tests, uses and adulterants of

Wool fat

Objectives

• At the end of this lecture, student will be able to

– Discuss the source, method of production, chemical constituents,
chemical tests, uses and adulterants of

Wool fat

Bees wax

Wool Fat

Synonym

Anhydrous wool fat, lanolin

Source

Waxy substance secreted upon the hairs constituting the
fleece of the sheep, Ovies aries

Family

Bovidae

Wool Fat –
Preparation

Method I:

• Raw sheeps’ wool – crude natural wool fat

First cleansing
process

• Water soluble part – steeping the fleeces in water

• Water insoluble part – removed by benzene, acetone or
suitable solvent

• Evaporated – brownish grease

Second cleansing process

• Removed by scouring the fleeces with soap and water

• Emulsion produced – acidified to separate the wool fat

• Fatty acids – removed as calcium salts

• Treated with acetone to separate the wool fat

• Acetone solution – evaporated to dryness – Crude wool fat

Method II:

• Scouring the fleeces with hot water

• Allow the emulsion to stand

• Impure wool fat rises as a cream

• Cleansed by repeated mixing with water

• Separated by centrifugation

Wool Fat

Description

• Yellowish, tenacious, unctuous solid

• Characteristic

• Bland

Standards

MP: 34-40oC

IV: 18-32

AV: not more than 1

SV: 90-105

Peroxide value: not more than 20

Solubility: Soluble in 99% alcohol (absolute)

Constituents

• Alcohols – cholesterol, lanosterol, agnosterol

• Lanoceric, lanopalmitic, carnaubic, myristic and a little
oleic, palmitic and cerotic acids                               

Chemical test

Sample + Chloroform + acetic anhydride + Conc. H2SO4, Deep
green colour

Uses:

As water soluble ointment base

Ingredient for many water soluble creams and cosmetic
preparations

Adulterants

Mineral fats

Animal and vegetable fats

Bees wax

Synonym

• Cera flava, cera alba, white bees wax, yellow bees wax

Source

Yellow bees wax is purified wax obtained from the honey comb
of the bees Apis mellifera and other species of Apis

Family

Apidae

Geographical source

Processed and commercially prepared in Italy, France and
India

Method of Preparation of 

Bees wax

• Cappings, combs of honey comb – broken and boiled with
soft water

• Packed in porous bags and kept under water

• Wax oozes out, gets collected outside

• Debris and impurities – removed by scrapping

• Purified

• Process is repeated

• White bees wax – bleaching yellow bees wax.

• Hydrogen peroxide, chromic acid, ozone, charcoal,
chlorine, potassium permanganate etc

• Natural bleaching

Description

• Yellow or white colour

• Agrreable, honey like odour

• Soft to touch, crumbles under pressure

• Granular fracture

• Insoluble in water, soluble in hot alcohol, ether,
chloroform, CCl4, fixed and volatile oils

Standards

MP: 62-65

SG: 0.958-0.967

AV: 5-10

SV: 90-103

EV: 80-95

Constituents

Bees Wax

Myricin (Myricyl palmitate, 80%)

Free cerotic acid (15%)

Small quantity of melissic acid and aromatic substances like
cerolein

Chemical tests

Saponification cloud test

Melting point of fatty acids – 61oC to 59oC

Uses

Bees Wax

• Ointment, plaster, polishes, candles, moulds, cosmetics
(lipsticks, face creams), in dental and electronic industries

Adulterants

• Soild paraffin, ceresin, fat and wax of vegetable and
mineral origin, resin, soap, stearic acid, colophony, starch and colouring
material

Summary

Wool fat is a waxy substance from sheep. Constituents
include cholesterol, lanosterol, agnosterol etc

Wool fat is used as water soluble base in ointments, creams
and cosmetic preparations

Yellow bees wax is purified wax obtained from the honey
combs

It contains esters of straight chain monohydric alcohol with
straight chain acids

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