Pharmaceuticals Packing Notes pdf


Packaging is the science, art and
technology of enclosing or protecting products for distribution, storage, sale,
and use. Packaging also refers to the process of design, evaluation, and
production of packages. Package labeling or labeling is any written,
electronic, or graphic communications on the packaging or on a separate but
associated label.

Types of packaging:

There are two types of packaging-

Primary packaging.

Secondary packaging.


It is the packing which is in contact with
medicament (capsule or tablet).

Blister packaging:-

In this PVC and Al Foil is used for

Sometimes Al foil is used wholly for

§  Thickness
of Al foil = 0.025mm ± 10%.

§  Thickness
of PVC = 0.25 mm ±10%.

The blister package is formed by heat-
softening a sheet of thermoplastic resin and vacuum drawing the softened sheet
of plastic into a contoured mold.

Blister packaging machine consist of-

§  Feeder

§  A
guide track.

§  A
forming dies.

§   Forming heater.

§  Sealing

§  Cutter.

§  Printing
registration controller.



§  Forming
heater = 140º-170º C.

§  Sealing
heater = 170º-200º C.

Strip packaging:-

The strip package is form by feeding to webs of a
heat sealable flexible film through either a heated crimping roller or a heated
reciprocating platen. In this the product is drop into the pocket formed prior
to forming the final set of seals.


It consist of –

§  Hopper.

§  Disc.

§  Channel

§  Two
rollers (for Al foil).

§  Cutter
(center cutter).

§  Conveyer

§  Thermostat.

§  Selector.

When primary (strip & blister)
packaging is done. The strips & blisters are subject for secondary packaging.


It is the packaging which is in contact with the
primary packaging.

It involved –

Cartoons (printed).

Corrugated boxes (CB).

White board box.

Corrugated boxes consist of 3 ply or 5
ply or 7 ply as per requirement.

When secondary packaging is complete a
BOPP tape (Bio Oriented Poly Propylene Tape) is use for sticking.

The purposes of packaging and
package labels

Packaging and package labeling have
several objectives:

protection –

The objects enclosed in the package may require protection from, among other
things, shock, vibration, compression, temperature, etc.

protection –

A barrier from oxygen, water vapor, dust, etc., is often required. Permeation
is a critical factor in design. Some packages contain desiccants or Oxygen
absorbers to help extend shelf life. Modified atmospheres or controlled
atmospheres are also maintained in some food packages. Keeping the contents
clean, fresh, and safe for the intended shelf life is a primary function.

or agglomeration –

Small objects are typically grouped together in one package for reasons of
efficiency. For example, a single box of 1000 pencils requires less physical
handling than 1000 single pencils. Liquids, powders, and granules need

transmission –

Packages and labels communicate how to use, transport, recycle, or dispose of
the package or product. With pharmaceuticals, food, medical, and chemical
products, some types of information are required by governments.


The packaging and labels can be used by marketers to encourage potential buyers
to purchase the product. Package design has been an important and constantly
evolving phenomenon for several decades. Marketing communications and graphic
design are applied to the surface of the package and (in many cases) the point
of sale display.


Packages can have features which add convenience in distribution, handling,
stacking, display, sale, opening, reclosing, use, and reuse.

control –

Single serving or single dosage packaging has a precise amount of contents to
control usage. Bulk commodities (such as salt) can be divided into packages
that are a more suitable size for individual households. It is also aids the
control of inventory: selling sealed one-liter-bottles of milk, rather than
having people bring their own bottles to fill themselves.

Packaging machines

A choice of packaging machinery
includes, technical capabilities, labor requirements, worker safety,
maintainability, serviceability, reliability, ability to integrate into the
packaging line, capital cost, flexibility (change-over, materials, etc.),
energy usage, quality of outgoing packages, qualifications (for food,
pharmaceuticals, etc.), throughput, efficiency, productivity,

machines may be of the following general types:

• Blister packs, skin packs and Vacuum
Packaging Machines.

• Bottle caps equipment, Over-Capping,
Lidding, Closing, Seaming and Sealing Machines.

Cartooning Machines.

Box, Case and Tray Forming, Packing, Unpacking, Closing and Sealing

Cleaning, Sterilizing, Cooling and Drying Machines.

Conveyors, Accumulating and Related Machines.

Feeding, Orienting, Placing and Related Machines.

Filling Machines: handling liquid and powdered products.

Package Filling and Closing Machines.

Form, Fill and Seal Machines.

Inspecting, Detecting and Checkweigher Machines.

Palletizing, Depalletizing, Unit load assembly.

Product Identification: labeling, marking, etc.

Wrapping Machines.

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