Tissue culture

 Tissue culture

Tissue culture as a technique was first used almost 100 years ago to elucidate some of the most basic questions in developmental biology.

Ross Harrison at the Rockefeller Institute, in an attempt to observe living, developing nerve fibers, cultured frog embryo tissues in plasma clots for 1 to 4 weeks (Harrison, 1907). 

He was able to observe the development and outgrowth of nerve fibers in these cultures. 

In 1912, Alexis Carrel, also at the Rockefeller Institute, attempted to improve the state of the art of animal cell culture with experiments on the culture of chick embryo tissue.

The next important advance in the conceptualization and technology of cell culture was the demonstration by Katherine Sanford and co-workers (1948) that single cells could be grown in culture. 

This, along with Harry Eagle’s (1955) demonstration that the complex tissue extracts, clots, and so forth previously used to grow cells could be replaced by ” . . . an arbitrary mixture of amino acids, vitamins, co-factors, carbohydrates, and salts, supplemented with a small amount of serum protein . . . ” opened up a new area of cell culture.

Defination –    it  is the activity to Faciliting the growth of tissue or cells in an artificial medium separate from the organism.

This is typically facilitated via use of liquid,semi-solid or solid growth medium such as broth or agar.

The term tissue culture is coined by American pathologist Montrose Thomas burrows. 

Types of tissue culture 

1.   Organ culture : 

slice of   organ can be maintained in vitro for days weeks so that it mimics the actual morphology of  the tissue and it’s function . Organ culture is useful for viruses which are highly specialized parasites of certain organs Ex:- Tracheal ring organ culture is used for the isolation of coronavirus, a respiratory pathogen.

2.   Exlant  culture: 

Frag  ments of minced(very small pieces )can be grown as explants embedded in plasma clots. They may also be cultivated in suspension. Adenoid tissue explants culture were used for the isolation of adenovirus.

3.   Cell   culture: 

It is widely used for growing viruses. 

Tissues are dissociated into the component cells by the action of enzyme and mechanical shaking. 

The cells are washed,counted  and suspended in a growth  medium.

The growth medium conists of essential amino  acids,glucose, vitamins, salts and a buffer.

Antibiotics  are  added  to  prevent bacterial contamination. 

the cell suspension is put into bottles, tubes  and pertidishes.

The cell adhere to the glass or plastics surface, divide and form a confluent monplayer sheet within a week.

Cell culture is further classified on the basis of origin,chromosomal characters and the number of generations through which they can be maintained. 

It is of three types- primary cell culture,diploid cell strain and continuous cell lines.

The cell culture is further classified on the basis of  origin, chrosomal charaxcteristic and number of generation through which they can be maintained.:-

   Primary cell culture

   Diploid cell strain

   Continuous cell culture


1.   Microbial detection in mammalin cell culture system.

2.   Facilited progress in therapeutics and regenerative medicines.

3.   Cell lines are used as model for drug studies.

4.   Drug screening  in cancer cell lines.

5.   Cell culture model for drug Permeability studies. 

Tissue Culture Notes PDF 

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