BIOCHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL PATHOLOGY D Pharm 1 year PDF Notes

BIOCHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL PATHOLOGY D Pharm 1 year PDF Notes

BIOCHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL PATHOLOGY D Pharm 1 year PDF Notes

In This PDF notes we cover fallowing topic….

Introduction to biochemistry. Brief  chemistry and  role  of  proteins,  polypeptides  and  amino  acids, classification, Qualitative tests, Biological value, Deficiency diseases.

Carbohydrates: Brief  chemistry  and  role  of  carbohydrates,  classification,  qualitative  tests,  Diseases related to carbohydrate metabolism.

Lipids: Brief chemistry and role of lipids, classification and qualitative tests. Diseases related to lipids metabolism.

Vitamins: Brief chemistry and role of vitamins and coenzymes.   Role of minerals and water in life processes.

Enzymes: Brief concept of enzymatic action. Factors affecting it.

Therapeutics: Introduction to pathology of blood and urine. Lymphocytes and platelets, their role in health and disease. Erythrocytes-Abnormal cells and their significance. Abnormal constituents of urine and their significance in diseases.

BIOCHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL PATHOLOGY D Pharm 1 year PDF Notes

Table of Contents

For PDF Notes Click on the Fallowing Topic:
 

1.0 Carbohydrate Metabolism

2.0 Citric Acid Cycle

3.0 Factors affecting enzyme activity

4.0 Glycogenolysis and Glycogenesis

5.0 HMP Shunt Pathway

6.0 Transamination & Deamination of amino acids

7.0 Urea cycle

8.0 Pathology of Urine

9.0 β- Oxidation of fatty acid

10. Glyconeogenesis

11.0 Biochemistry and Clinical Pathology Short Note

FAQ:

Proteins, Polypeptides, and Amino Acids:

Q1: What are proteins, and what is their role in the human body? Proteins are large biomolecules composed of amino acids. They serve various essential functions, such as enzyme catalysis, structural support, immune response, and transport within the body.

Q2: How are proteins classified? Proteins can be classified based on their structure and function. Structural classifications include primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structures, while functional classifications categorize them as enzymes, antibodies, receptors, and more.

Q3: What are qualitative tests for proteins and amino acids? Qualitative tests for proteins include the Biuret test, which turns violet in the presence of proteins. For amino acids, the ninhydrin test results in a purple color.

Q4: What is the biological value of proteins, and why is it important? The biological value of proteins measures their quality and nutritional value. It’s crucial for assessing how well a protein source can meet an individual’s amino acid requirements.

Q5: Can a deficiency of proteins lead to health problems? Protein deficiency can lead to various health issues, including muscle wasting, impaired immune function, and stunted growth.

Carbohydrates:

Q6: What are carbohydrates, and what is their role in the body? Carbohydrates are organic compounds that serve as a primary source of energy in the body. They play a crucial role in fueling cellular processes.

Q7: How are carbohydrates classified? Carbohydrates are classified into sugars (monosaccharides and disaccharides), starches (polysaccharides), and dietary fiber.

Q8: What are common qualitative tests for carbohydrates? Qualitative tests for carbohydrates include the Benedict’s test for reducing sugars and the Iodine test for starch.

Q9: What diseases are related to carbohydrate metabolism? Diseases related to carbohydrate metabolism include diabetes mellitus, where the body struggles to regulate blood sugar levels effectively.

Lipids:

Q10: What are lipids, and what roles do they play in the body? Lipids are a diverse group of hydrophobic molecules that serve as energy storage, structural components of cell membranes, and insulation.

Q11: How are lipids classified? Lipids can be classified into triglycerides (fats and oils), phospholipids, and steroids.

Q12: What are qualitative tests for lipids? The Sudan III test is a qualitative test for lipids, resulting in the formation of a red layer when lipids are present.

Q13: What diseases are related to lipid metabolism? Diseases related to lipid metabolism include hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis, which can lead to heart and vascular issues.

Vitamins and Minerals:

Q14: What are vitamins and minerals, and what are their roles in the body? Vitamins and minerals are micronutrients required for various physiological functions. Vitamins often act as coenzymes, while minerals are essential for diverse processes.

Enzymes:

Q15: What is the concept of enzymatic action? Enzymes are biological catalysts that facilitate chemical reactions in living organisms. They lower the activation energy required for reactions, making them occur more efficiently.

Q16: What factors affect enzymatic action? Enzymatic action is influenced by factors such as temperature, pH, substrate concentration, and the presence of inhibitors or activators.

Pathology of Blood, Urine, and Therapeutics:

Q17: What is the role of lymphocytes and platelets in health and disease? Lymphocytes are key components of the immune system, while platelets play a crucial role in blood clotting. Both are vital for maintaining health.

Q18: What are abnormal erythrocytes, and why are they significant? Abnormal erythrocytes can indicate various health conditions, including anemia and hemoglobin disorders. Their significance lies in diagnosing and monitoring these conditions.

Q19: What are the abnormal constituents of urine, and what do they signify in diseases? Abnormal constituents of urine can indicate kidney dysfunction, urinary tract infections, or metabolic disorders. Identifying these constituents is essential for diagnosing diseases related to the urinary system.

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