Cosmetics are defined as substances or preparations intended to be rubbed or sprinkled or applied to any part of the external surfaces of the human body (Ex-Face, lips, nails) beautifying, promoting attractiveness or perfuming or protecting them or keeping them in good condition or altering their appearance or masking body odour or perspiration or to the teeth for the purpose of cleaning. Generally cosmetic preparations are not used to prevent or to treat any disease.

Classification of Cosmetics:

Cosmetics are classified on the basis of part of the organ where they are applied.

  1. Cosmetics for the skin: Ex: Cleansing creams, cold cream, vanishing creams, and calamine lotion, deodorants.
  1. Cosmetics for face: Ex: Face power, lipstick, and rouge
  1. Cosmetics for nails: Preparations concerned with cleaning and decoration of the nails Ex: nail polish (Manicure preparations)
  2. Cosmetics for the hairs: Ex: Shampoos, hair sprays, hair dressings, hair tonics, hair colorants
  1. Cosmetics for teeth and mouth:Ex: Dentifrices (tooth power, tooth paste) mouth washes
  1. Depilatories:Preparation used to remove unwanted hair in the area of face, legs and axillae without causing injury to the skin.
  1. Shaving preparations:Ex: Shaving soap, saving cream.
  1. Cosmetics for eye:Ex: Eye preparation known as mascara.


Dentifrices are preparations used to clean and polish the teeth adequately and keep the mouth and teeth fresh and clear.

Basic requirements of dentifrices:

  1. Dentifrices should keep the mouth and teeth fresh and clean
  2. Dentifrices are used to
  3. Removal of food debris
  4. Removal of plaque
  5. Removal of foreign matter
  6. Decrease tooth decay
  7. The dentifrices must be harmless, pleasant and convenient to use.
  8. The product should be stable during storage
  9. It should not be expensive.

Types of dentifrices:

Tooth paste:

Tooth paste is a suspension of abrasives in glycerol/water mixture with other substances such as detergents, binding agents, sweetening agents, flavouring agents etc.

Formulation: The following ingredients are generally used for preparing tooth pastes.

  1. Abrasives (polishing agents):Abrasives are substances used to clean and polish the teeth and remove the debris from the tooth surface without damaging it. Ex: Precipitated chalk (CaCo3), Dicalcium phosphate dehydrate, Tricalcium phosphate
  1. Detergents (surfactants):Detergents are substances used to clean the teeth and also support the polishing action of abrasives. Ex: Sodium lauryl sulphate. Sodium N-lauryl sarcosinate. Sodium ricinoleate
  1. Humectants:Humectants are substances which prevent quick drying of the preparation Ex: Glycerol, propylene glycol, sorbitol syrup (70%).
  1. Binding agents:These are substances which give good consistency to the preparation. Their protective colloidal effect stabiles the preparation and they thicken the paste. Ex: Tragacanth, CMC, Sodium CMC, Guar gum.
  1. Flavouring agents:They give sensation of freshness and good flavour to the preparation. Ex: Peppermint oil rose oil, clove oil, menthol etc.
  1. Sweetening agents:They give pleasant taste to the preparation Ex: Sodium cyclamate, saccharin, sorbitol etc.
  1. Preservatives:Binding agents in the form of mucilage’s promote the growth of micro-organism so to prevent the growth of micro – organism and to preserve the preparation preservatives are included.Ex: Formalin, sodium benzoate, Para hydroxyl benzoate etc .
  1. Anti-corrosive agent:Precipitated CaCo3 give alkalinity to the tooth paste and makes it corrosive to the aluminium tubes, when the tooth paste is packed in aluminium tubes. To prevent the corrosion, sodium silicate is used as anti-corrosive agent.
  1. Colours:They give good appearance to the preparation red, blue, green colouring pigments are used in tooth pastes. Ex: Carmine, phloxin, Erythrosine, Eosine
  1. Bleaches: These are used to increase whitening effects Eg: Sodium perforates ppt chlorate.
  1. Therapeutic agents:Tooth cleaning agents which contain some drugs or chemicals which for reason of its bacterial Bacteriostatic, enzyme inhibiting or acid neutralizing qualities reduce the incidence of dental caries or acid in the control of periodontal disease.

Ex: Urea, Ammonium, Dibasic ammonium phosphate chlorophyll derivatives, penicillin enzymes and fluorides.

Formula :

Caco3                                       -20g

Dicalcium phosphate              -34g

Sodium lauryl sulphate           -1.2g

Sodium CMC solution             -2.2g

Glycerine                                 -6g

Mineral oil                              -1g

Sorbitol 70% solution              -32ml

Saccharin sodium                    -0.6ml

Purified water                         -4ml

Peppermint oil                        -Q.s

Methyl paraben                        Q.s

Method of preparation:

  1. Glycerol sorbitol and methyl paraben solution are poured over sodium CMC to from a mucilage
  2. Saccharin sodium is dissolved in this mucilage. Then CaCo3di-calcium phosphate and sodium lauryl sulphate are incorporated into the above mass with constant stirring.
  3. Then small amounts of mineral oil, flavouring agent, colouring agent and remaining preservatives are added to the above mass.
  4. The whole mass is stirred continuously until a uniform consistency is obtained.
  5. Finally the completed product is milled or homogenized. 


  1. The tooth pastes spread easily on the tooth brush convenient to use.
  2. The wastage is very minimum spillage because they are available in tubes.
  3. Their consistency, flavour and colour are more attractive than tooth powder.


  1. They are expensive than tooth powder.
  2. The method of preparation of tooth paste is complicated than tooth powder.

Storage: It is packed in a collapsible tube.

Use: Used to clean the teeth.

Tooth powder:

Tooth powders are tooth cleansers, consisting of abrasives detergents flavouring agent and sweetening agent in a fine powder form.

General method of preparation: The flavouring agent, sweetening agent and colouring agent (if any) are mixed thoroughly with abrasive and detergent ingredients and then passed through a sieve number 0.3mm mesh.

Ex: Formula:    Di-calcium phosphate dihydrate         -79%

                          CaCo3                                                 -20%

                          Sodium lauryl sulphate                       -1%

                          Peppermint oil                                    -Q.s

                          Saccharin sodium                                -Q.s


  1. Sodium lauryl sulphate, saccharin sodium and peppermint oil are mixed thoroughly with small portion of Dicalcium phosphate dihydrate and CaCo3.
  2. Then the remaining portion of Dicalcium phosphate dihydrate and CaCo3are added and mixed thoroughly.
  3. Then the final product is passed through a sieve number 0.3 mm mesh.


  1. They are not more expensive when comparing tooth pastes.
  2. The method of preparation is simple when comparing tooth paste.

Actions: Dicalcium phosphates dihydrate and Caco3 acts as abrasives. Sodium lauryl sulphate acts as detergent. Peppermint oil as flavouring agent. Saccharin sodium acts as sweetening agent.

Storage: it is packed in a narrow mouth small tin.

Use: It is used to clean the teeth.


Shampoos are the formulations for cleaning and conditioning hair. The shampoos are used for removal and residues of hair growing preparations.

Ideal properties of shampoos:

  1. It should be easily soluble even in hard water
  2. It should not produce ppt with hard water
  3. It should spread easily over the hair and should not immediately sink into the hair.
  4. It should have a good cleaning effect.
  5. It should not remove excess of natural oils from the hair.
  6. It should not have any un-pleasant odour
  7. It should not be too expensive.
  8. It should not give roughness and tangling tendency to hair.
  9. It should not have any corrosive effect on the eye.
  10. It should give gross and lusture to the hair.
  11. It should not have any irritation effect.
  12. It should make hair free, smell clean and fresh.

Different types of shampoos:

  1. Shampoos are classified according to the physical properties:
  2. Clear liquid shampoo
  3. Liquid cream shampoo
  4. Solid cream shampoo
  5. Herbal shampoo
  6. Oil shampoos
  7. Dry powder shampoo
  8. Aerosol shampoos
  9. Dry shampoos (liquid type)
  10. Anti-dandruff shampoo and medicated shampoos
  11. Egg shampoos
  12. According to their function:
  13. Conditioning shampoos
  14. Baby shampoos
  15. Anti-dandruff and medicated shampoos
  16. Acid balanced shampoos.
Formulation of shampoos:

Shampoos mainly containing the following ingredients

  1. Detergents:These are used in shampoo to clean the hair. Single or combination of detergents can be used.Ex: Sodium lauryl sulphate, Tri-ethanolamine oleate, Tiepol, Fatty oil soap & Poly-ethylene glycol 400 distearate.
  1. Disinfectants and Germicides:These are used in shampoo to prevent itching caused by the bacteria.Ex: HexachloropheneDi-ChloropheneActamer.
  1. Anti-Dandruff agents:Anti-dandruff agents are used to prevent the formation of scaly scurf on the skin under the hair.Ex: Benzalkonium chlorideCetrimideHyamines.
  1. Conditioning agents:These agents improve the condition of hair. They give smoothness and softness to the hair.Ex: Lanolin, Mineral oils, Amino acids, Egg yolk, Lecithin.
  1. Viscosity modifiers:Viscosity means increases the thickness of the shampoo. Ex: NH4 & NaCl, Alginates, Karaya gum, Tragacanth, CMC, and Carboxy vinyl polymer.
  1. Opacifying and clarifying agents:Opacity and pearl like shining is provided by finely dispersed ZnO to titanium oxide.
  1. Preservatives:Natural additives make shampoo prove to microbial attacks. There preservatives like hydroxyl benzoates esters, quaternary ammonium salt, and formaldehyde are added.
  1. Sequestering agents:These are required to prevent the formation and deposition of Ca & Mg soaps on the hair, while rinsing with hard water.Ex: EDTA & Pyrophosphates.
  1. Colouring agents:They give attractive colour to the preparation.

Ex: Quinizarin green, Tertrazine yellow.

  1. Perfumes:These are used in shampoos to provide pleasant feeling.

  Ex: Lavender oil, Rosemary oil, Jasmine oil.

Methods of preparation:

  1. a) The detergents, preservatives and other ingredients are dissolved in a suitable solvent

     Ex:  Water, alcohol.

  1. b) The colouring agent is dissolved in a suitable solvent.
  2. c) The colouring agent solution is added to the detergent solution and mixed well.
  3. d) Finally the preparation is flavoured.


Deodorants are the agents which mask the unpleasant odour of the body is known as deodorants. A deodorant reduces the body odour without affecting any body function. Ex: Emcol, alcohol, mineral oil, carbopol, glycerine, water.

Mechanism of action: The PH of sweat is 4.0 to 6.8 it is secreted. Sweat is odourless at the time of secretion but after sometime, the sweat is decomposed by the micro-organisms on the skin. As the result the bad odour develops. Deodorants prevent the decomposition of the sweat by inhibiting the bacterial activity or by inhibiting the growth of bacteria. Generally micro-organisms do not thrive below PH-4. Deodorants react with sweat and it brings down the PH below 4.0 and these stop the bacterial growth.

Composition of deodorants: Deodorant preparation mainly contains the following ingredients. They are

a) Anti-bacterial agents: Hexa – methylene tetranine, Hexachlorophene, trichloro-carbonilide, zinc ricinoleate are used as deodorants.

b) Ethyl alcohol:It is used as a vehicle, deodorant products also act as anti-bacterial.

c) Essential oils:like thyme contains thymol and clove oil contains eugenol. They act as deodorants and anti-bacterial agents.

Types of deodorants: Deodorants are available in various forms mainly

  1. a)Liquid deodorant
  2. b)) Sticks deodorant
  3. c)) Creams
  4. d)) Jellies
  5. e)) Powders ,
  6. f)) Soaps
  7. g)) Aerosols


 Phase-A: Emcol, Hex chlorophene, alcohol, mineral oil, menthol

Phase-B: Glycerin, water

Phase-C: Carbopol

Method of preparation:

  1. Dissolve all the ingredients of phase-A
  2. Dissolve all the ingredients of phase –B separately
  3. Add phase a solution to phase B solution with stirring.
  4. To this mixture, add carbopol and stir vigorously for 30min
  5. Keep the mixed solutions in a closed container for at-least for 48hours, then filter the solution and kept in a suitable container.

Facial cosmetics: 

Facial cosmetics are preparations intended to be applied on and around the face including checks, eye shadow, eye liner, eye brow, lips for the purpose of cleaning protecting them or keeping them in good condition or changing their appearance.


  1. Cleansing and cold cream Ex – Cold cream, Cream, cleansing cream
  2. Night and massage creams Ex – Night cream, massage cream
  3. Foundation and vanishing cream Ex – Foundation and cream, emollient cream
  4. Moisturizing and emollient cream Ex – Moisturizing and emollient cream
  5. Astringent lotions and skin tonics Ex – Antiperspirant lotion, calamine lotions skin tonics
  6. Face powders Ex – Face powders
  7. Coloured make up preparations: Ex – Lipsticks, lip salves, Rouge, eye make – up preparations.
  8. Skin nourishing preparations: The cream containing vitamins and hormones provide nourishment to the skin.

 Face powders:

Face powder is one of the make – up preparations applied to the face beautifying, promoting attractiveness and altering the appearance.

Function of face powder: a) To give a smooth velvet line finish to the skin

  1. b) To mask minor visible imperfection. c) To mask only appearance of the face due to sweat.

Ideal properties of face powders: The face powder must possess the following properties

  1. a) Covering properties:It should cover the skin effects such as scars, enlarged pore and blemishes (some black spot)
  2. b) Spreading properties:It should have good spreading quality so that it produces a smooth feeling on the skin.
  3. c) Absorbing property:It should absorb sebaceous secretions of the skin and perspirations.
  4. d) Adhesion property:It should adhere to the face adequately
  5. e) Blooming property:It should give smooth velvet like appearance to the face.

Formulation of the face powders: The following ingredients are used in the face powders. They are

  1. a) Covering agents:It covers the skin defects such as scars, enlarged pores and blemishes. The range of concentration is 10-25%. Ex:Titanium dioxide, ZnO, Magnesium oxide & kaolin.
  2. b) Adsorbing agents:It absorbs sebaceous (oily) secretions and perspiration so that it produces a smooth feeling on the skin. The range of concentration is up to – 30%.

 Ex:  precipitated chalk, Mg Co3, Starch, Kaolin.

  1. c) Adhering agent:It improves the adherence power of face powder to the face. The range of adhering is 3-10%.Ex: Talc, Zinc stearate, Mg stearate, the adhesion of powders to the face can also be improved by including certain emollients such as cetyl alcohol or stearyl alcohol in the formula.
  2. d) Slipping agent:It improves the spreading property of the face powder and it gives characteristic smooth feeling.Ex: Talc, Zinc stearate, starch
  3. e) Blooming agent:It gives smooth, velvet like appearance to the face.Ex:  Chalk, starch
  4. f) Colouring agents:It gives good appearance to the preparation

 Ex:  In Organic pigments like iron oxide which gives yellow, red and brown colour and ultramarine give green and blue colour.

  1. g) Perfumes:It gives fragrant and pleasant smell to the face powder.

Ex:  lavender, jasmine oil, Rose oil.

Cold Cream:

It is an emulsion when applied to skin, a cooling effect is produced due to slow evaporation of water present in the emulsion. Cold creams are o/w type emulsion but after application on the skin, sufficient water evaporates to produce phase inversion w/o type.


    Bees wax

    Liquid paraffin



    Perfume and preservative

Method of preparation:

  1. Heat bees wax and liquid paraffin at 700C.
  2. Dissolve borax in water and heat the solution to 700C.
  3. Add this hot solution into the melted mixture and continuously until a smooth cream is formed.
  4. Continue the stirring until it is cold.

Storage: It is packed in a well closed container.

Actions: 1. Bees wax acts as base.2. Liquid paraffin acts as emollient.3. Borax acts as emulgent.4. Water acts as vehicle.

Vanishing Cream:

It is a soft semisolid cosmetic preparation. When it is applied on the face, a very thin layer is formed. These creams can be quickly washed off with water due to the presence of o/w type of emulsifiers.


   Stearic acid

   Potassium hydroxide



   Methyl paraben

   Rose oil

Method of preparation: 1. Melt stearic acid at 700C.

  1. Dissolve potassium hydroxide in water, to this add glycerine and heat this solution to 700C.
  2. Add this hot solution into the stearic acid and stir well until a smooth cream is formed.
  3. Maintain temperature during stirring, continue stirring until it cools to 300C.
  4. To this add methyl paraben solution and rose oil, continue the stirring until it gets cold.

Storage: It is packed in a well closed container.


  1. Stearic acid acts as a base.
  2. Potassium hydroxide reacts with free fatty acid present in stearic acid to form soap which acts as emulgent.
  3. Glycerin acts as an emollient and antidrying agent.
  4. Water acts as vehicle.


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