DENTAL AND COSMETIC PREPARATIONS
Cosmetics are defined as substances or
preparations intended to be rubbed or sprinkled or applied to any part of the
external surfaces of the human body (Ex-Face, lips, nails) beautifying,
promoting attractiveness or perfuming or protecting them or keeping them in
good condition or altering their appearance or masking body odour or
perspiration or to the teeth for the purpose of cleaning. Generally cosmetic
preparations are not used to prevent or to treat any disease.
Cosmetics are classified on the basis
of part of the organ where they are applied.
Cosmetics for the skin: Ex: Cleansing
creams, cold cream, vanishing creams, and calamine lotion, deodorants.
Cosmetics for face: Ex: Face power,
lipstick, and rouge
Cosmetics for nails: Preparations
concerned with cleaning and decoration of the nails
Ex: nail polish (Manicure preparations)
Cosmetics for the hairs: Ex: Shampoos,
hair sprays, hair dressings, hair tonics, hair colorants
Cosmetics for teeth and mouth: Ex:
Dentifrices (tooth power, tooth paste) mouth washes
Depilatories: Preparation used to remove unwanted
hair in the area of face, legs and axillae without causing injury to the skin.
Shaving preparations: Ex: Shaving soap,
Cosmetics for eye: Ex: Eye
preparation known as mascara.
Dentifrices are preparations used to
clean and polish the teeth adequately and keep the mouth and teeth fresh and
Basic requirements of dentifrices:
1. Dentifrices should keep the mouth
and teeth fresh and clean
2. Dentifrices are used to
Removal of food
Removal of plaque
3. Decrease tooth decay
4. The dentifrices must be harmless,
pleasant and convenient to use.
5. The product should be stable during
6. It should not be expensive.
Types of dentifrices:
1. Tooth paste:
Tooth paste is a suspension of
abrasives in glycerol/water mixture with other substances such as detergents,
binding agents, sweetening agents, flavouring agents etc.
The following ingredients are generally used
for preparing tooth pastes.
Abrasives (polishing agents): Abrasives
are substances used to clean and polish the teeth and remove the debris from
the tooth surface without damaging it.
Ex: Precipitated chalk (CaCo3), Dicalcium phosphate
dehydrate, Tricalcium phosphate
Detergents (surfactants): Detergents are
substances used to clean the teeth and also support the polishing action of
Ex: Sodium lauryl sulphate. Sodium
N-lauryl sarcosinate. Sodium ricinoleate
Humectants: Humectants are substances which
prevent quick drying of the preparation
Ex: Glycerol, propylene glycol,
sorbitol syrup (70%).
Binding agents: These are substances which give good
consistency to the preparation. Their protective colloidal effect stabiles the
preparation and they thicken the paste.
Ex: Tragacanth, CMC, Sodium CMC, Guar
Flavouring agents: They give
sensation of freshness and good flavour to the preparation.
Ex: Peppermint oil rose oil, clove
oil, menthol etc.
Sweetening agents: They give
pleasant taste to the preparation
Ex: Sodium cyclamate, saccharin,
Preservatives: Binding agents in the form of
mucilage’s promote the growth of micro-organism so to prevent the growth of
micro – organism and to preserve the preparation preservatives are included. Ex: Formalin, sodium benzoate, Para
hydroxyl benzoate etc .
Anti-corrosive agent: Precipitated
CaCo3 give alkalinity to the tooth paste and makes it corrosive to the
aluminium tubes, when the tooth paste is packed in aluminium tubes. To prevent
the corrosion, sodium silicate is used as anti-corrosive agent.
Colours: They give good appearance to the
preparation red, blue, green colouring pigments are used in tooth pastes. Ex: Carmine, phloxin, Erythrosine, Eosine
10. Bleaches: These
are used to increase whitening effects
Eg: Sodium perforates ppt chlorate.
Therapeutic agents: Tooth cleaning
agents which contain some drugs or chemicals which for reason of its bacterial
Bacteriostatic, enzyme inhibiting or acid neutralizing qualities reduce the
incidence of dental caries or acid in the control of periodontal disease.
Ex: Urea, Ammonium, Dibasic ammonium phosphate chlorophyll
derivatives, penicillin enzymes and fluorides.
Dicalcium phosphate -34g
Sodium lauryl sulphate -1.2g
Sodium CMC solution -2.2g
Mineral oil -1g
Sorbitol 70% solution -32ml
Saccharin sodium -0.6ml
Purified water -4ml
Peppermint oil -Q.s
Methyl paraben Q.s
Method of preparation:
1. Glycerol sorbitol and methyl
paraben solution are poured over sodium CMC to from a mucilage
2. Saccharin sodium is dissolved in
this mucilage. Then CaCo3 di-calcium phosphate and sodium lauryl
sulphate are incorporated into the above mass with constant stirring.
3. Then small amounts of mineral oil,
flavouring agent, colouring agent and remaining preservatives are added to the
4. The whole mass is stirred
continuously until a uniform consistency is obtained.
5. Finally the completed product is
milled or homogenized.
1. The tooth pastes spread easily on
the tooth brush convenient to use.
2. The wastage is very minimum
spillage because they are available in tubes.
3. Their consistency, flavour and
colour are more attractive than tooth powder.
1. They are expensive than tooth
2. The method of preparation of tooth
paste is complicated than tooth powder.
Storage: It is
packed in a collapsible tube.
Use: Used to
clean the teeth.
2. Tooth powder:
Tooth powders are tooth cleansers,
consisting of abrasives detergents flavouring agent and sweetening agent in a
fine powder form.
method of preparation: The flavouring
agent, sweetening agent and colouring agent (if any) are mixed thoroughly with
abrasive and detergent ingredients and then passed through a sieve number 0.3mm
Di-calcium phosphate dihydrate -79%
Peppermint oil -Q.s
Saccharin sodium -Q.s
1. Sodium lauryl sulphate, saccharin
sodium and peppermint oil are mixed thoroughly with small portion of Dicalcium
phosphate dihydrate and CaCo3.
2. Then the remaining portion of
Dicalcium phosphate dihydrate and CaCo3 are added and mixed
3. Then the final product is passed
through a sieve number 0.3 mm mesh.
1. They are not more expensive when
comparing tooth pastes.
2. The method of preparation is simple
when comparing tooth paste.
Dicalcium phosphates dihydrate and Caco3
acts as abrasives. Sodium lauryl sulphate acts as detergent. Peppermint oil as
flavouring agent. Saccharin sodium acts as sweetening agent.
Storage: it is packed in a narrow mouth small tin.
Use: It is used to clean the teeth.
Shampoos are the formulations for
cleaning and conditioning hair. The shampoos are used for removal and residues
of hair growing preparations.
properties of shampoos:
1. It should be easily soluble even in
2. It should not produce ppt with hard
3. It should spread easily over the
hair and should not immediately sink into the hair.
4. It should have a good cleaning
5. It should not remove excess of
natural oils from the hair.
6. It should not have any un-pleasant
7. It should not be too expensive.
It should not give roughness and tangling tendency to hair.
9. It should not have any corrosive
effect on the eye.
10. It should give gross and lusture
to the hair.
It should not have any irritation effect.
12. It should make hair free, smell
clean and fresh.
Different types of shampoos:
Shampoos are classified according to the physical properties:
1. Clear liquid shampoo
2. Liquid cream shampoo
3. Solid cream shampoo
4. Herbal shampoo
5. Oil shampoos
6. Dry powder shampoo
7. Aerosol shampoos
8. Dry shampoos (liquid type)
9. Anti-dandruff shampoo and medicated shampoos
10. Egg shampoos
According to their function:
1. Conditioning shampoos
2. Baby shampoos
3. Anti-dandruff and medicated shampoos
4. Acid balanced shampoos.
Formulation of shampoos:
Shampoos mainly containing the
Detergents: These are used in shampoo to clean the
hair. Single or combination of detergents can be used. Ex: Sodium lauryl sulphate, Tri-ethanolamine oleate, Tiepol, Fatty
oil soap & Poly-ethylene glycol
Disinfectants and Germicides: These are
used in shampoo to prevent itching caused by the bacteria. Ex: Hexachlorophene, Di-Chlorophene, Actamer.
Anti-Dandruff agents: Anti-dandruff
agents are used to prevent the formation of scaly scurf on the skin under the
hair. Ex: Benzalkonium chloride, Cetrimide, Hyamines.
Conditioning agents: These agents
improve the condition of hair. They give smoothness and softness to the hair. Ex: Lanolin, Mineral oils, Amino
acids, Egg yolk, Lecithin.
Viscosity modifiers: Viscosity means
increases the thickness of the shampoo.
Ex: NH4 & NaCl, Alginates, Karaya gum, Tragacanth,
CMC, and Carboxy vinyl polymer.
Opacifying and clarifying agents: Opacity
and pearl like shining is provided by finely dispersed ZnO to titanium oxide.
Preservatives: Natural additives make shampoo prove
to microbial attacks. There preservatives like hydroxyl benzoates esters,
quaternary ammonium salt, and formaldehyde are added.
Sequestering agents: These are
required to prevent the formation and deposition of Ca & Mg soaps on the
hair, while rinsing with hard water. Ex:
EDTA & Pyrophosphates.
Colouring agents: They give
attractive colour to the preparation.
Ex: Quinizarin green, Tertrazine yellow.
Perfumes: These are used in shampoos to provide
Lavender oil, Rosemary oil, Jasmine oil.
Methods of preparation:
a) The detergents, preservatives and
other ingredients are dissolved in a suitable solvent
Ex: Water, alcohol.
b) The colouring agent is dissolved in
a suitable solvent.
c) The colouring agent solution is
added to the detergent solution and mixed well.
d) Finally the preparation is
Deodorants are the agents which mask
the unpleasant odour of the body is known as deodorants. A deodorant reduces the body odour without affecting any body
function. Ex: Emcol, alcohol,
mineral oil, carbopol, glycerine, water.
of action: The PH of sweat is 4.0 to
6.8 it is secreted. Sweat is odourless at the time of secretion but after
sometime, the sweat is decomposed by the micro-organisms on the skin. As the
result the bad odour develops. Deodorants
prevent the decomposition of the sweat by inhibiting the bacterial activity or
by inhibiting the growth of bacteria. Generally micro-organisms do not thrive
below PH-4. Deodorants
react with sweat and it brings down the PH
below 4.0 and these stop the bacterial growth.
of deodorants: Deodorant preparation mainly contains
the following ingredients. They are
Anti-bacterial agents: Hexa –
methylene tetranine, Hexachlorophene, trichloro-carbonilide, zinc ricinoleate
are used as deodorants.
Ethyl alcohol: It is used as a vehicle, deodorant
products also act as anti-bacterial.
Essential oils: like thyme contains thymol and clove
oil contains eugenol. They act as deodorants and anti-bacterial agents.
of deodorants: Deodorants are available in various
) Powders ,
of preparation: Composition:
Phase-A: Emcol, Hex chlorophene, alcohol,
mineral oil, menthol
Phase-B: Glycerin, water
1. Dissolve all the ingredients of
2. Dissolve all the ingredients of
phase –B separately
3. Add phase a solution to phase B
solution with stirring.
4. To this mixture, add carbopol and
stir vigorously for 30min
5. Keep the mixed solutions in a
closed container for at-least for 48hours, then filter the solution and kept in
a suitable container.
cosmetics: Facial cosmetics are preparations
intended to be applied on and around the face including checks, eye shadow, eye
liner, eye brow, lips for the purpose of cleaning protecting them or keeping
them in good condition or changing their appearance.
1. Cleansing and cold cream Ex – Cold
cream, Cream, cleansing cream
2. Night and massage creams Ex – Night
cream, massage cream
3. Foundation and vanishing cream Ex –
Foundation and cream, emollient cream
4. Moisturizing and emollient cream Ex
– Moisturizing and emollient cream
5. Astringent lotions and skin tonics
Ex – Antiperspirant lotion, calamine lotions skin tonics
6. Face powders Ex – Face powders
7. Coloured make up preparations: Ex –
Lipsticks, lip salves, Rouge, eye make – up preparations.
8. Skin nourishing preparations: The
cream containing vitamins and hormones provide nourishment to the skin.
Face powders: Face powder is one of the make – up
preparations applied to the face beautifying, promoting attractiveness and
altering the appearance.
of face powder: a) To give a smooth velvet line finish
to the skin
b) To mask minor visible imperfection.
c) To mask only appearance of the face due to sweat.
properties of face powders: The face powder
must possess the following properties
Covering properties: It should cover
the skin effects such as scars, enlarged pore and blemishes (some black spot)
Spreading properties: It should have
good spreading quality so that it produces a smooth feeling on the skin.
Absorbing property: It should absorb
sebaceous secretions of the skin and perspirations.
Adhesion property: It should adhere
to the face adequately
Blooming property: It should give
smooth velvet like appearance to the face.
of the face powders: The following
ingredients are used in the face powders. They are
Covering agents: It covers the skin defects such as
scars, enlarged pores and blemishes. The range of concentration is 10-25%. Ex: Titanium dioxide, ZnO, Magnesium
oxide & kaolin.
Adsorbing agents: It absorbs
sebaceous (oily) secretions and perspiration so that it produces a smooth
feeling on the skin. The range of concentration is up to – 30%.
Ex: precipitated chalk, Mg Co3,
Adhering agent: It improves the adherence power of
face powder to the face. The range of adhering is 3-10%. Ex: Talc, Zinc stearate, Mg stearate, the adhesion of powders to
the face can also be improved by including certain emollients such as cetyl
alcohol or stearyl alcohol in the formula.
Slipping agent: It improves the spreading property of
the face powder and it gives characteristic smooth feeling. Ex: Talc, Zinc stearate, starch
Blooming agent: It gives smooth, velvet like
appearance to the face. Ex: Chalk, starch
Colouring agents: It gives good
appearance to the preparation
Ex: In Organic pigments like iron oxide which
gives yellow, red and brown colour and ultramarine give green and blue colour.
Perfumes: It gives fragrant and pleasant smell
to the face powder.
Ex: lavender, jasmine oil,
It is an emulsion when applied to
skin, a cooling effect is produced due to slow evaporation of water present in
the emulsion. Cold creams are o/w type emulsion but after application on the
skin, sufficient water evaporates to produce phase inversion w/o type.
Perfume and preservative
1. Heat bees wax and liquid paraffin
2. Dissolve borax in water and heat
the solution to 700C.
3. Add this hot solution into the
melted mixture and continuously until a smooth cream is formed.
4. Continue the stirring until it is
It is packed in a well closed container.
1. Bees wax acts as base.2. Liquid paraffin
acts as emollient.3. Borax acts as emulgent.4. Water acts as vehicle.
It is a soft semisolid cosmetic
preparation. When it is applied on the face, a very thin layer is formed. These
creams can be quickly washed off with water due to the presence of o/w type of
of preparation: 1. Melt stearic acid at 700C.
2. Dissolve potassium hydroxide in
water, to this add glycerine and heat this solution to 700C.
3. Add this hot solution into the
stearic acid and stir well until a smooth cream is formed.
4. Maintain temperature during
stirring, continue stirring until it cools to 300C.
5. To this add methyl paraben solution
and rose oil, continue the stirring until it gets cold.
It is packed in a well closed container.
1. Stearic acid acts as a base.
2. Potassium hydroxide reacts with
free fatty acid present in stearic acid to form soap which acts as emulgent.
3. Glycerin acts as an emollient and
4. Water acts as vehicle.
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