Hemophilia – B. Pharma 2nd Semester Pathophysiology notes pdf

Hemophilia

Hemophilia

OBJECTIVE

At the end of the PDF Notes, the students will be able to

       Explain hemophilia

       Describe the pathophysiology and clinical features of Hemophilia

        Describe the clinical features and treatment of Haemophilia a and Haemophilia b

Normal Clotting

Response to vessle injury

1. Vasoconstriction to reduce blood flow

2. Platelet plug formation (von willebrand factor binds damaged vessle and platelets)

3. Activation of clotting cascade with generation of fibrin clot formation

4. Fibrinlysis (clot breakdown)

Clotting Cascade

Normally the ingredients, called factors, act like a row of dominoes toppling against each other to create a chain reaction.

If one of the factors is missing this chain reaction cannot proceed.

Clotting-Cascade

Hemophilia

Hemophilia is an inherited bleeding disorder in which there is a deficiency or lack of factor VIII (hemophilia A) or factor IX (hemophilia B)

COAGULATION DISORDERS: Disorders of plasma coagulation factors may have hereditary or acquired origin

HEREDITARY COAGULATION DISORDERS

1)      Classic haemophilia or haemophilia A (due to inherited deficiency of factor VIII) sex-(X)- linked disorders

2)  Christmas disease or haemophilia B (due to inherited deficiency of factor IX).

Types of Bleeding Disorders

       Hemophilia A (factor VIII deficiency)

       Hemophilia B (factor IX deficiency)

       von Willebrand Disease (vWD)

       Other

Inheritance of Hemophilia

       Hemophilia A and B are X-linked recessive disorders

       Hemophilia is typically expressed in males and carried by females

       Severity level is consistent between family members

       ~30 % of cases of hemophilia are new mutations

Haemophilia A

       It is the second most common hereditary coagulation disorder next to von Willebrand’s disease occurring due to deficiency or reduced activity of factor VIII (anti-haemophilic factor).

       Inherited as a sex-(X-) linked recessive trait- manifest in males

       The frequency of haemophilia varies in different races, the highest incidence being in populations of Britain, Northern Europe and Australia.

Pathogenesis of Haemophilia A

       Haemophilia A is caused by quantitative reduction of factor VIII in 90% of cases, while 10% cases have normal or increased level of factor VIII with reduced activity

       Factor VIII  synthesised hepatic parenchymal cells activate  factor X (intrinsic coagulation pathway)

       Factor VIII-vWF complex

       25% factor VIII level may develop bleeding, most symptomatic haemophilic patients have factor VIII levels below 5%.

Clinical Features of Haemophilia A

       Patients of haemophilia suffer from bleeding for hours or days after the injury.

TREATMENT

       Factor VIII replacement therapy,

Christmas Disease (Haemophilia B)

       Inherited deficiency of factor IX (Christmas factor or plasma thromboplastin component) produces Christmas disease or haemophilia B.

       TREATMENT. Therapy in symptomatic haemophilia B consists of infusion of either fresh frozen plasma or a plasma enriched with factor IX

Haemophilia Inheritance FVIII and FIX only

        Two chromosomes determine the sex of an individual, X and Y.

        Female XX

        Male XY

Father with Haemophilia

        Genetic defect causing haemophilia on that part of X chromosome not on Y chromosone

        Daughter of haemophiliac will inherit his X and be carrier.

        Sons of a haemophiliac will not be affected as they inherit fathers Y chromosome which does not carry FVIII or FIX gene. 

Carrier Mother (one normal gene and one defective gene)

        Chances carrier mother passing defective gene to a child are 50:50.

        Each daughter has 50:50 chance being a carrier

        Each son has 50:50 chance of having haemophilia.

Spontaneous Mutation

In some 30% cases of haemophilia there is no known family history

Haemophilia is probably the result of spontaneous genetic mutation in these families.

Summary

       Classic haemophilia or haemophilia A (due to inherited deficiency of factor VIII) sex-(X)- linked disorders and  Christmas disease or haemophilia B (due to inherited deficiency of factor IX

       Hemophilia A and B are X-linked recessive disorders

       Hemophilia is typically expressed in males and carried by females

       Haemophilia A is caused by quantitative reduction of factor VIII in 90% of cases, while 10% cases have normal or increased level of factor VIII with reduced activity

       Factor VIII replacement therapy

•   it is not curable, but it can be managed effectively with appropriate treatment.

•    it is typically inherited as an X-linked genetic disorder, meaning it is passed down from carrier mothers to their sons.

•     it is diagnosed through blood tests to determine clotting factor levels and a clinical evaluation.

•     While replacement therapy is the standard treatment, some novel therapies and medications are under development.

•    With proper management and care, individuals with hemophilia can lead fulfilling and productive lives.

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