HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
HAP D Pharm First Year Important Question Answer
Human Anatomy and Physiology D Pharm First Year Important Question Answer
Question No. 01. Define the following terms (2 marks each)
(A) Arthrology (B) Myasthenia Gravis (C) Synovitis (D) Epiphysis (E) Histology (F) Anatomy & physiology (G) Cranial cavity (H) Mesentery
Question No. 02. Define the following terms (2 marks each)
(A) Appendicular skeleton (B) Osteocyte (C) Myology (D) Cardiac Output (E) Tachycardia (F) Bradycardia (G) Gynaecomastia (H) Osteoporosis
Question No. 03. Define the following terms (2 marks each)
(A) Rh factor (B) Tissue (C) Lymph (D) Tetanus (E) Menopause (F) Taxonomy (G) Cytology (H) Pathology
Question No. 04. Differentiate the following:-
(A) Tendon and Ligaments (B) Hyaline cartilages and Elastic Cartilages (C) Sympathetic nervous system and Parasympathetic nervous system (D) S.A. node and A.V. node (E) Arteries and Veins
Question No. 05 Describe the structure and functions of kidney and nephron. Discuss in detail the physiology of urine formation.
Question No. 06. Describe structure of heart with the help of neat and clean diagram. Explain various types of cardiovascular disorders.
Question No. 07. Describe eye with the help of neat and clean diagram with functions of different parts. Discuss various visual disorders.
Question No. 08.Write a short note on the following:
(A) Define blood and give its component. Describe the various functions of Blood. (B) Define coagulation of blood. Write down the steps and factors involved in blood clotting. (C) Give short note on Anemia. (D) Define blood pressure and pulse and give its normal range. Describe the method of recording of blood pressure.
Question No. 09 Write a short note on the following: (A) Classify joints. Explain synovial joint in detail. (B) Describe various disorders of joints. (C) Functions of skeleton system.
Question No. 10 Write a short note on the following: (A) Reflex action or reflex arc with examples. (B) Physiology of muscle contraction.
Question No. 11. Write a short note on (A) Menstrual cycle (B) Functions of uterus
Question No. 12. Write down the names and functions of hormones secreted from:
(A) Anterior lobe of pituitary gland (B) Thyroid gland (C) Pancreas gland (D) Pineal gland
Question No. 13. Write note on the followings:
(A) Physiology of respiration, (B) Functions of Liver. (C) Enumerate different types of tissues with detail note on epithelial tissue. (D) Digestion and absorption of carbohydrates, fats and proteins.
Question No. 14. (A) Give a short note on Male reproductive organ system. (B) Give a short note on Female reproductive organ system.
Question No. 15. Draw a well labeled diagram of a typical cell and enumerate its various components.
Question No. 16. Name the parts of conduction system of heart.
Question No. 17. Name the smallest functional unit of human excretory system.
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Question No. 01:
(A) Arthrology: Arthrology is the study of joints, their structure, and function.
(B) Myasthenia Gravis: Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune neuromuscular disorder that leads to muscle weakness and fatigue.
(C) Synovitis: Synovitis is the inflammation of the synovial membrane in joints.
(D) Epiphysis: Epiphysis is the rounded end of a long bone, typically involved in joint formation.
(E) Histology: Histology is the study of the microscopic structure of tissues.
(F) Anatomy & Physiology: Anatomy is the study of the structure of living organisms, while physiology is the study of their functions.
(G) Cranial cavity: The cranial cavity is the space within the skull that houses the brain.
(H) Mesentery: The mesentery is a fold of tissue that attaches the intestine to the abdominal wall.
Question No. 02:
(A) Appendicular skeleton: The appendicular skeleton consists of the bones of the limbs and their girdles.
(B) Osteocyte: Osteocytes are mature bone cells responsible for maintaining bone tissue.
(C) Myology: Myology is the study of muscles.
(D) Cardiac Output: Cardiac output is the volume of blood pumped by the heart in one minute.
(E) Tachycardia: Tachycardia is a rapid heart rate, usually above 100 beats per minute.
(F) Bradycardia: Bradycardia is a slow heart rate, typically below 60 beats per minute.
(G) Gynaecomastia: Gynaecomastia is the enlargement of breast tissue in males.
(H) Osteoporosis: Osteoporosis is a medical condition characterized by weakened bones, increasing the risk of fractures.
Question No. 03:
(A) Rh factor: The Rh factor is a protein found on the surface of red blood cells. It is an important factor in blood compatibility.
(B) Tissue: Tissue is a group of similar cells that perform a specific function.
(C) Lymph: Lymph is a colorless fluid that circulates in the lymphatic system, carrying white blood cells and waste products.
(D) Tetanus: Tetanus is a bacterial infection that leads to muscle stiffness and spasms.
(E) Menopause: Menopause is the natural biological process marking the end of a woman’s reproductive years.
(F) Taxonomy: Taxonomy is the science of classifying and naming living organisms.
(G) Cytology: Cytology is the study of cells.
(H) Pathology: Pathology is the study of diseases and their causes.
Question No. 04:
(A) Tendon and Ligaments: Tendons are fibrous tissues that connect muscles to bones, enabling movement. Ligaments, on the other hand, connect bones to other bones, providing stability to joints.
(B) Hyaline cartilages and Elastic Cartilages: Hyaline cartilage is a flexible and resilient type of cartilage found in joints, while elastic cartilage is more flexible and found in structures like the outer ear.
(C) Sympathetic nervous system and Parasympathetic nervous system: The sympathetic nervous system is responsible for the “fight or flight” response, increasing heart rate and alertness. The parasympathetic nervous system promotes “rest and digest” functions, slowing the heart rate and aiding in digestion.
(D) S.A. node and A.V. node: The S.A. (sinoatrial) node is the heart’s natural pacemaker, initiating the heartbeat. The A.V. (atrioventricular) node transmits electrical signals from the atria to the ventricles.
(E) Arteries and Veins: Arteries carry oxygenated blood away from the heart to the body, while veins return deoxygenated blood to the heart.
Question No. 05: The kidney and nephron are vital components of the urinary system. The kidney filters the blood, removes waste products, and regulates fluid and electrolyte balance. Nephrons are the functional units of the kidney and are responsible for the formation of urine. They consist of the renal corpuscle, proximal convoluted tubule, loop of Henle, distal convoluted tubule, and collecting duct. The process of urine formation involves filtration, reabsorption, and secretion.
Question No. 06: The structure of the heart includes four chambers: two atria and two ventricles. The heart pumps blood through the circulatory system, ensuring oxygen and nutrients are delivered to body tissues. Cardiovascular disorders can include conditions like coronary artery disease, heart failure, arrhythmias, and more.
Question No. 07: The eye consists of various parts, including the cornea, iris, lens, and retina. These parts work together to facilitate vision. Visual disorders can range from myopia (nearsightedness) to cataracts and glaucoma.
Question No. 08:
(A) Blood is a fluid connective tissue that comprises red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets, and plasma. It performs various functions, including oxygen transport, immune response, and clotting.
(B) Blood coagulation is the process of forming a blood clot to stop bleeding. It involves multiple factors and steps, including vasoconstriction, platelet activation, and clot formation.
(C) Anemia is a condition characterized by a reduced number of red blood cells or a decrease in hemoglobin, leading to reduced oxygen-carrying capacity in the blood.
(D) Blood pressure and pulse are essential vital signs. Normal blood pressure is typically around 120/80 mm Hg, and pulse rate varies but is generally between 60-100 beats per minute. Blood pressure is recorded using a sphygmomanometer.
Question No. 09:
(A) Joints can be classified into various types, with synovial joints being one of them. Synovial joints are characterized by a synovial membrane that produces synovial fluid for lubrication. Various joint disorders can affect these joints. The skeletal system plays a crucial role in providing structure and support to the body, protecting vital organs, and enabling movement.
(B) Joint disorders can include conditions like osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and gout. These conditions impact the normal function of joints.
(C) The skeletal system has several functions, including support, protection, movement, blood cell production, and mineral storage.
Question No. 10:
(A) Reflex actions are involuntary, rapid responses to stimuli. Reflex arcs are the neural pathways responsible for reflex actions. Examples include the knee-jerk reflex.
(B) Muscle contraction is a complex process involving the sliding of myofilaments, actin, and myosin. It is initiated by nerve impulses and involves the release of calcium ions.
Question No. 11:
(A) The menstrual cycle is a monthly series of changes in the female body involving the release of an egg and the preparation of the uterine lining for potential pregnancy.
(B) The uterus has various functions, including hosting the fertilized egg, nurturing the developing fetus, and contracting to expel the baby during childbirth.
Question No. 12:
(A) Hormones secreted from the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland include growth hormone (GH), prolactin, and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH).
(B) The thyroid gland secretes hormones such as thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) that regulate metabolism.
(C) The pancreas gland produces insulin and glucagon, which regulate blood sugar levels.
(D) The pineal gland secretes melatonin, which regulates sleep-wake cycles.
Question No. 13:
(A) Respiration is the process of exchanging oxygen and carbon dioxide between the body and the environment. It involves breathing and cellular respiration.
(B) The liver has various functions, including detoxification, metabolism of nutrients, and production of bile.
(C) Tissues in the human body include epithelial, connective, muscular, and nervous tissues. Epithelial tissue covers and lines various body surfaces.
(D) Digestion and absorption are essential processes in the breakdown and utilization of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins for energy and other functions.
Question No. 14:
(A) The male reproductive organ system includes the testes, vas deferens, and the penis. It produces and delivers sperm.
(B) The female reproductive organ system includes the ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, and vagina. It is responsible for producing eggs, nurturing a developing fetus, and facilitating childbirth.
Question No. 15: A typical cell consists of various components, including the cell membrane, nucleus, cytoplasm, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, mitochondria, and more. These components work together to maintain the cell’s functions.
Question No. 16: The parts of the conduction system of the heart include the S.A. (sinoatrial) node, A.V. (atrioventricular) node, bundle of His, and Purkinje fibers.
Question No. 17: The smallest functional unit of the human excretory system is the nephron, specifically the renal corpuscle and the associated renal tubules.