Biochemistry and Clinical Pathology D Pharm 1st Year Important Question Answer
Biochemistry and Clinical Pathology D Pharm 1st Year Important Question Answer
Q. 1. What are proteins? Classify them with examples
Q. 2. Write short note on water balance.
Q. 3. Enumerate the biological function of magnesium, potassium, sodium, phosphorus, calcium, zinc & chlorine.
Q. 4. What are essential amino acids? Give examples and mention their significance.
Q. 5. Describe Urea cycle & write its Significance.
Q. 6. Give the source, biochemical role and deficiency symptoms of vitamin c.
Q. 7. Give the structure of sucrose, maltose along with test to identify them.
Q. 8. What is Transamination & Deamination of amino acids?
Q. 9. Write note on diagnostic and therapeutic applications of enzymes.
Q. 10. What are carbohydrates? Classify them with examples.
Q.11. Describe the function, structure and deficiency disorder of riboflavin.
Q. 12. Write a note on enzyme inhibition.
Q. 13. Write a note on Mutarotation.
Q. 14. Explain denaturation of proteins.
Q. 15. Define and classify vitamins with examples.
Q. 16. write a note on Glucose tolerance test.
Q. 17. What are platelets? List out their functions
Q. 18. Define a) Zwitter Ion, b) Isoelectric PH, c) Saponification Number, d) Iodine Value.
Q.19. Define Epimers & Anomers of carbohydrates with examples.
Q. 20. Write a note on rancidity of oils.
Q. 21. Name the ketone bodies & explain the tests to detect them.
Q.22. What are erythrocytes? Write a note on anaemia & write the abnormalities of RBC’s
Q.23. Write a note on atherosclerosis.
Q.24. What are coenzyme? Describe the chemistry source, biochemical role and deficiency symptoms of folic acid.
Q.25. Name the different pathway of carbohydrate metabolism. Describe the pathway involved in the oxidation of glucose.
Q.26. Describe the colour reactions of protein and biological role of protein.
Q.27. Discuss glycogenolysis and Glycogenesis with its significance.
Q.28. Explain the factors affecting enzyme activity.
Q.29. Define & classify lipids with suitable examples. Write a note on Rancidity.
Q.30. Describe the normal & abnormal constituents of urine including their significance & laboratory tests to detect them.
Q.31. Describe the following with help of chemical reaction a) HMP Shunt Pathway b) Citric Acid Cycle c) β- oxidation of fatty acid
Q.32. Explane Gluconeogenesis.
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Certainly! Here are the remaining frequently asked questions (FAQ) on various biochemistry topics:
Q1: What are proteins? Can you classify them with examples? Proteins are large biological molecules made up of amino acids. They are classified into structural, enzymatic, transport, contractile, and storage proteins. Examples include collagen, enzymes like amylase, hemoglobin, actin, and casein.
Q2: Write a short note on water balance. Water balance refers to the equilibrium between water intake and output in the body. It’s crucial for maintaining proper hydration, and it involves processes like fluid intake, excretion, and regulation by hormones like ADH (antidiuretic hormone).
Q3: Enumerate the biological function of magnesium, potassium, sodium, phosphorus, calcium, zinc, and chlorine.
- Magnesium: Essential for muscle and nerve function.
- Potassium: Critical for nerve and muscle cells.
- Sodium: Maintains fluid balance and helps transmit nerve impulses.
- Phosphorus: Key in energy metabolism and bone health.
- Calcium: Vital for bone and muscle function.
- Zinc: Important for immune function and wound healing.
- Chlorine: Maintains fluid balance and plays a role in digestion.
Q4: What are essential amino acids? Can you provide examples and mention their significance? Essential amino acids are amino acids that the body cannot synthesize and must be obtained through the diet. Examples include lysine and leucine. They are vital for protein synthesis, growth, and tissue repair.
Q5: Describe the Urea cycle and write its significance. The Urea cycle is a biochemical pathway that eliminates excess ammonia from the body by converting it into urea, which is less toxic. This cycle is crucial for nitrogen disposal and maintaining a healthy nitrogen balance in the body.
Q6: Give the source, biochemical role, and deficiency symptoms of vitamin C. Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid, is found in citrus fruits and plays a crucial role in collagen synthesis, wound healing, and as an antioxidant. Deficiency can lead to scurvy, characterized by bleeding gums, fatigue, and weakness.
Q7: Provide the structure of sucrose and maltose along with tests to identify them.
- Sucrose: Composed of glucose and fructose. It is identified by hydrolysis with invertase to yield glucose and fructose.
- Maltose: Consists of two glucose molecules linked. It is identified through the Benedict’s test, which turns red when maltose is present.
Q8: What is Transamination & Deamination of amino acids? Transamination is the transfer of an amino group from one amino acid to a keto acid, forming a new amino acid. Deamination is the removal of an amino group from an amino acid, producing ammonia and a keto acid.
Q9: Write a note on diagnostic and therapeutic applications of enzymes. Enzymes find extensive use in diagnostic tests, such as measuring blood glucose levels. They are also used therapeutically, for example, in enzyme replacement therapy for patients with enzyme deficiencies.
Q10: What are carbohydrates? Can you classify them with examples? Carbohydrates are organic compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. They are classified into sugars (glucose, fructose), starches (found in grains), and cellulose (found in plant cell walls).
Q11: Describe the function, structure, and deficiency disorder of riboflavin. Riboflavin, also known as vitamin B2, is essential for energy production and the metabolism of fats, drugs, and steroids. It is a component of the coenzymes FMN and FAD. Deficiency can lead to a condition known as Ariboflavinosis, characterized by sore throat, redness, and swelling of the lining of the mouth and throat.
Q12: Write a note on enzyme inhibition. Enzyme inhibition involves the regulation of enzyme activity. It can be competitive (molecules compete with the substrate), non-competitive (molecules bind elsewhere on the enzyme), or uncompetitive (binds only to the enzyme-substrate complex). Inhibitors can be used in drug development and research.
Q13: Write a note on Mutarotation. Mutarotation is the process by which the specific rotation of an optically active substance changes over time. It occurs when an equilibrium mixture of two anomers (isomers) forms in a solution. For example, glucose in solution mutarotates between its alpha and beta forms.
Q14: Explain denaturation of proteins. Protein denaturation is the disruption of the protein’s three-dimensional structure, leading to loss of its biological activity. This can occur due to heat, pH changes, or the presence of certain chemicals. Denatured proteins often lose their functionality.
Q15: Define and classify vitamins with examples. Vitamins are organic compounds required in small quantities for normal body functioning. They are classified into fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K) and water-soluble vitamins (B-complex, C). They have various vital roles in metabolism, immunity, and overall health.
Q16: Write a note on the Glucose tolerance test. The Glucose Tolerance Test (GTT) is used to diagnose diabetes and gestational diabetes. It involves drinking a sugary solution, followed by blood glucose measurements at specific intervals. Abnormal glucose tolerance can indicate a glucose metabolism disorder.
Q17: What are platelets, and what functions do they serve? Platelets, or thrombocytes, are small cell fragments in the blood. They play a crucial role in blood clotting and wound healing. When blood vessels are damaged, platelets aggregate at the site to form a plug that stops bleeding.
Q18: Define a) Zwitter Ion, b) Isoelectric pH, c) Saponification Number, d) Iodine Value.
- a) Zwitter Ion: A molecule with both positive and negative charges, like amino acids.
- b) Isoelectric pH: The pH at which an amino acid or protein has no net electric charge.
- c) Saponification Number: A measure of the average molecular weight of fats and oils.
- d) Iodine Value: A measure of the unsaturation of fats and oils.
Q19: Define Epimers & Anomers of carbohydrates with examples. Epimers are a type of stereoisomer that differs in the configuration of a single asymmetric carbon atom. Anomers are a subset of epimers and differ in the configuration around the hemiacetal or hemiketal carbon atom. For example, glucose and galactose are epimers, while alpha and beta glucose are anomers.
Q20: Write a note on the rancidity of oils. Rancidity refers to the spoilage of fats and oils, leading to an unpleasant taste and odor. It can be caused by oxidation (oxidative rancidity) or microbial action (hydrolytic rancidity). Proper storage and antioxidants can help prevent rancidity.
Q21: Name the ketone bodies & explain the tests to detect them. The main ketone bodies are acetone, acetoacetate, and beta-hydroxybutyrate. Tests to detect them include the nitroprusside test and the acetest tablet test.
Q22: What are erythrocytes? Write a note on anemia and abnormalities of RBCs. Erythrocytes are red blood cells responsible for transporting oxygen. Anemia is a condition characterized by a low RBC count or decreased hemoglobin levels, leading to fatigue and weakness. Abnormalities of RBCs include sickle cell anemia, thalassemia, and polycythemia.
Q23: Write a note on atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is a condition where the arteries become narrowed and hardened due to the buildup of cholesterol plaques. It is a major cause of heart disease and stroke.
Q24: What are coenzymes? Describe the chemistry, source, biochemical role, and deficiency symptoms of folic acid. Coenzymes are organic molecules that help enzymes function properly. Folic acid is a B-vitamin essential for DNA synthesis and cell growth. Deficiency can result in anemia and birth defects.
Q25: Name the different pathways of carbohydrate metabolism. Describe the pathway involved in the oxidation of glucose. Carbohydrate metabolism includes glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation. Glycolysis is the initial step in glucose metabolism, where glucose is broken down into pyruvate.
Q26: Describe the color reactions of protein and the biological role of protein. Proteins can be tested using the Biuret test, which changes color in the presence of proteins. Proteins play various vital roles, including enzyme function, structural support, and immune response.
Q27: Discuss glycogenolysis and Glycogenesis with its significance. Glycogenolysis is the breakdown of glycogen to release glucose when needed for energy. Glycogenesis is the synthesis of glycogen to store glucose. Both processes help maintain blood sugar levels.
Q28: Explain the factors affecting enzyme activity. Enzyme activity can be influenced by factors such as temperature, pH, substrate concentration, and the presence of inhibitors or activators.
Q29: Define & classify lipids with suitable examples. Write a note on Rancidity. Lipids are diverse organic compounds, including fats, phospholipids, and steroids. Rancidity is the spoilage of lipids, leading to unpleasant odors and flavors, and can be caused by oxidation or hydrolysis.
Q30: Describe the normal & abnormal constituents of urine, including their significance, and laboratory tests to detect them. Normal urine constituents include water, urea, creatinine, and electrolytes. Abnormal constituents may indicate underlying health conditions, such as proteinuria or hematuria. Various laboratory tests, like urinalysis, can detect these abnormalities.
Q31: Describe the HMP Shunt Pathway, Citric Acid Cycle, and β-oxidation of fatty acids with chemical reactions.
- HMP Shunt Pathway: Also known as the pentose phosphate pathway, it generates NADPH and ribose-5-phosphate for nucleotide synthesis.
- Citric Acid Cycle: Also called the Krebs cycle, it is involved in the oxidation of acetyl-CoA to generate ATP.
- β-oxidation of fatty acids: This process breaks down fatty acids into acetyl-CoA for energy production.
Q32: Explain Gluconeogenesis. Gluconeogenesis is the synthesis of glucose from non-carbohydrate sources, primarily in the liver and kidneys. It occurs when glucose levels are low, such as during fasting.
Q33: What is the structure of proteins and how are they classified? Proteins are composed of amino acids linked by peptide bonds. They are classified based on their structure into primary, secondary (alpha-helix, beta-sheet), tertiary, and quaternary structures. Classification can also be based on function, such as enzymes or antibodies.
Q34: Define isoenzymes. Provide an example and explain their significance. Isoenzymes are enzymes that have the same function but differ in their biochemical properties, such as structure or substrate specificity. An example is creatine kinase (CK), which has different isoenzymes in heart and skeletal muscle. They are important for diagnosing tissue damage or diseases.
Q35: What are hormones, and what are their roles in the body? Hormones are chemical messengers produced by endocrine glands that regulate various physiological processes. They play key roles in growth, metabolism, stress response, reproduction, and many other functions.
Q36: Describe glycolysis and its significance. Glycolysis is the metabolic pathway that converts glucose into pyruvate, producing ATP and NADH. It is essential for cellular energy production and is the starting point for both anaerobic and aerobic respiration.
Q37: What are the different types of antibodies and their functions in the immune system? Antibodies (immunoglobulins) include IgA, IgM, IgG, IgD, and IgE. They play various roles in the immune system, such as neutralizing pathogens, triggering immune responses, and providing immunity.
Q38: Define isoelectric point (pI) and its significance. The isoelectric point (pI) is the pH at which a molecule carries no net electrical charge. It is important in various biological processes, including protein separation techniques like isoelectric focusing.
Q39: Explain the structure and functions of RNA. RNA (ribonucleic acid) is a single-stranded molecule involved in protein synthesis, gene regulation, and other cellular processes. It carries genetic information from DNA to ribosomes for protein synthesis.
Q40: Define osmosis and its role in biological systems. Osmosis is the movement of solvent molecules through a semi-permeable membrane from an area of lower solute concentration to an area of higher solute concentration. It is vital for maintaining the balance of water and solutes in cells and organisms.
Q41: Describe the role of antioxidants in the human body. Antioxidants are molecules that protect cells from oxidative damage by neutralizing harmful free radicals. They play a crucial role in reducing the risk of chronic diseases and aging.
Q42: What is the Bohr effect in hemoglobin and its significance? The Bohr effect describes the relationship between pH and hemoglobin’s ability to bind oxygen. It helps hemoglobin release oxygen in tissues where pH is lower, facilitating oxygen delivery to active cells.
Q43: What are the components of the citric acid cycle (Krebs cycle), and what is its role in metabolism? The citric acid cycle involves a series of chemical reactions that produce ATP and high-energy electron carriers. Its components include citrate, isocitrate, α-ketoglutarate, and succinate, among others. It is a central hub in cellular respiration.
Q44: Explain the term “gene expression” and its importance in genetics and biology. Gene expression is the process by which the information in a gene is used to synthesize a functional gene product, typically a protein. It is essential for cellular functions, development, and responses to environmental changes.
Q45: Describe the functions and classification of vitamins. Vitamins are essential organic compounds that regulate various metabolic processes. They are classified into fat-soluble (A, D, E, K) and water-soluble (B-complex, C) vitamins. Each vitamin has specific functions, and deficiencies can lead to various health problems.