Introduction of Biochemistry, Protein & Amino-Acid

 Introduction of Biochemistry, Protein & Amino-Acid

Biochemistry is the study of chemistry of living organism
and deals with the structure and function of tissue cell Organelles and
individual bio molecular.

Biochemistry means chemistry of life.

In biochemistry we also study about the chemical process in
living organism.

Biochemistry is helpful in the detailed study of structure
and function of biomolecules (Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids, and Minerals).

Study about the various interaction of different
biomolecular (Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids, and Minerals).

Study about the energy transformation in living cells

The study of natural of enzyme and working of enzymes and
study of different types of enzymes.


      Proteins are naturally
occurring polymers made up of amino acids.

everything that occurs in the cells involves one or more Proteins.

provide structure, cellular reaction and carried out the tasks.

Role of protein

      Protein perform
difference role in the living system.

      Proteins which
catalyze by your chemical reactions are called enzymes.

      Proteins are
responsible for transportation of metabolites fructose, Glucose or Gases (like
Oxygen, Carbon dioxide) are called transport proteins.

      Protein which
are responsible for to protect from infection and other toxic substances are
called antibiotics or defense proteins.

     Proteins which
are required to give strength to cells or tissue are called structural

    Proteins which
are required to carry out mechanical work are called muscle proteins.

Amino acids

20 amino acid are found in protein and they are called
standard amino acid. These amino acids contain the carboxyl group and the amino
group attached to α carbon.

Classification of

1.  Simple Proteins

2.  Conjugated

3.  Derived Proteins

1.  Simple Proteins:- Simple protein contain
only amino acid reduce and other intimately bound material.

2.  Conjugated Proteins: – Conjugated
proteins contain in addition to polypeptide chain others substance or groups
which impart characteristics properties.

3.  Derived Proteins:- Derived protein are
derived from partial to complete hydrolysis from the simple or conjugated
proteins by the action of acids, alkalis or enzymes.

Qualitative tests of

1. Heat test:-

      When protein
solution is heated in boiling water both the protein get co-angulated and lose
their biological activity.

      This is called
thermal denaturation of proteins

      e.g. – Boiling

2. Test with
trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-

      TCA is normally
used to precipitate proteins from their solution. TCA denatures the proteins.

3. Biuret Test:-

      Biuret reagents
consists of copper sulphate in an alkaline medium when proteins are treated
with Biuret reagent it’s shows a violet colour.

4. Hydrolysis Test:-

      Proteins on
hydrolysis gives free amino acids Hydrolysis can be carried out by acids like
HCL, H2So4, etc. Or Alkalis like – NaOH, KoH etc.

5. Xanthoprotic

      Nitration of
aromatic amino acids of protein give yellow colour concentrated nitric acid is
used for Nitration.

6. Millon’s Test:-

      Phenolic group
of tyrosine of proteins react with mercuric sulphate in the presence of sodium
nitrate and sulphuric acid to give red colour.

7. Precipitation

      Protein are
Precipitated by using different agents the common precipitation agents are
salt, Organic solvent heavy metal ion, acids etc.

      Salt – Ammonium
sulphate, Sodium chloride.

      Acids –
Trichloroacetic acid (TCA), Acetic acid, Hydrochloric acid.

solvents – Acetone alcohol

      Heavy metal
ions – Ammonium molybdate, Copper or Mercury salts.

Biological value:-

      Proteins give
amino acids on hydrolysis during digestion and blood Amino acids are the
building blocks required for a cell to sysethesis of proteins.

importance of proteins:-

      Proteins are
the structural component of protoplasm cell and tissues.

      Enzymes and few
hormone are Proteins in nature antibiotics, hemoglobin are also Proteins.

is one of the important components of diet it is required to maintain growth
and healthy functioning of the body.

Protein are also
classified and nutritional basic.

1.  Complete Proteins: – Proteins which
contain all the essential amino acids in required quantity are called complete

2.  Incomplete Proteins:- Proteins not
containing all the essential amino acid are called incomplete protein.

Protein deficiency:-

      We know that
proteins are required for several Vital process in the body.

     Naturally a low
intake of proteins in result in deficiency symptoms such condition that are
developed may be due to low dietary intake.

Protein deficiency disease:-

A) Kwashiorkor:

      The symptoms of
the diseases slow down the growth, edema and change in skin, hair pigmentation
and texture.

there is liver enlightenment there is vomiting and diarrhea and stools contain
much undigested food.

     The course of
this disease due to large family size, poor mental health, poor environmental
conditions and delayed supplementary feeding.

Note:- This disease appears most commonly in children
between the ages of 1 to 4 year.

B) Nutritional edema:

      It result from
long contained loss of protein and usually occurs in famine areas. The Proteins
deficiency in adults is very rare.

     The deficiency
symptoms include loss of weight reduced fat ammonia, infections, frequent loose
stools delay in healing of wounds and Edema.

      Use of soybean,
milk and eggs and other nutritious diet can cure the Protein deficiency
syndrome in adults.

      Deficiency of
protein shows different changes in body.

C) Marasmus:

      It is a disease
of infants below one year of age.

      It’s cause is
Proteins and carbohydrate or other nutritional factor deficiencies.

      Proteins and
energy deficiency disease is also known as Marasmus kwashiorkor.

      Marasmus is
more likely to occur in poor people.

      The cause of this disease is due to the
delayed breast feeding.

      Providing diet
rich in colors, proteins and other nutritional factors is the best course in
preparation and cure of the Marasmus.

Amino acids

      Amino acids are
building blocks of protein.

     Amino acids are
compound that contain and amino group and carboxyl group and the amino group
attached to alpha carbon.

     The key elements
of an amino acid are Carbon (C) Hydrogen (H) Oxygen (O) and nitrogen (N).

     There are there
are 20 amino acids at present in our body in which 9 Essential and 2
Non-essential amino acids.

Essential Amino

    The amino acids
which cannot be synthesized in the body but are required for normal function of
body are called as essential amino acids.

   These amino acids
should be supplied through diet.

Non-essential amino

   The amino acids
which are synthesized in the body are called as non-essential amino acids.

Essential Amino Acids

Non-essential amino acids






Aspartic acid




Glutamic acid











A) Physical
properties of Amino acids:

1) Solubility:

      All amino acids
are Soluble in water but their Solubility various to a great extent.

depends on the nature of R- group. i.e. polarity of the amino acid.

      Polar amino
acids are highly Soluble in water.

      Non-polar amino
acids are highly Soluble in organic solvents like chloroform, ether etc.

2) Optical activity:

      All standard
amino acid except glycine have an asymmetric carbon atoms due to this amino
acids are optically active.

3) Acid and Base

      Amino acids
contain the acidic carboxyl group (-CooH) and the basis group amino (-NH2)
Hence amino acids are called as amphoteric molecules or ampholytes (i.e.
Amphoteric electrolytes)

B) Chemical
properties of Amino acids


are a chain of amino acids.

      All Proteins
are polypeptides.

      500 or more
than 500 amino acids held together by peptide bond.

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