OPHTHALMIC PRODUCTS – PHARMACEUTICS II (Dispensing Pharmacy) D. Pharm 2nd year PDF Notes



Ophthalmic products

Ophthalmic products are sterile preparations intended for application to the eyelids or installation into the space between the eye ball and the eye lids.

Classification of Ophthalmic products:

These are classified as follows

1.     Eye drops

2.     Eye lotions

3.     Eye ointment

4.     Eye packs

5.     Eye discs

6.     Intra ocular dosage forms

1. Eye drops:

Eye drops are sterile aqueous or oily solutions or suspensions intended into the conjuctival sac.

Ideal characters of eye drops:

1.     They should be free from foreign particles.

2.     They should be free from pain and irritating effect

3.     They must be sterile at all time

4.     They must contain suitable preservatives

5.     They should be chemically stable

6.     All the eye drops must be isotonic with the lachrymal secretions

Containers: Eye drops are dispensed in glass or suitable plastic containers with a screw cap fitted with a rubber teat and glass dropper for easy application of the drops or the containers may be fitted with a nozzle from which the drops can be directly instilled into the eye.

Storage: Eye drops are stored in a closed sterile container.

Labelling: “For external use only” if irritation occurs dis-continues use.

2. Eye lotion:

Eye lotions or eye washes are sterile aqueous preparations used for washing the eye to remove the foreign particles and discharges from the eye.

Types of eye lotions:

Eye lotions are broadly classified into two types they are:

1.  Eye lotion containing anti-bacterial agents and used for eye infections. It can be used over a period of 1-7 days. Ex: Boric acid eye lotion.

2.  Eye lotion containing no anti bacterial agents and used for irritation purpose. It should be freshly prepared and used within 24-48 hours. Ex: – Nacl eye lotion.

Eye lotion should be sterile and isotonic with lachrymal tears. Sterilization may either be done by autoclaving or filtration.

The lotion is applied to the eye by means of an eye bath and it allowed to run from the inner to the outer corner of the eye.

NaHCo3 eye lotion is used for the first aid purpose in the treatment of acid burns.

Nacl eye lotion is used for irritating the eye.

These are simple preparation by dissolving the Nacl/Na HCo3 in purified water. These are sterilized by filtration and finally sterilizing by heating in autoclave in a container.

Ideal Characteristics:

Soothing: Eye lotions are formulated to provide soothing relief, making them ideal for mild eye discomfort.

Hydrating: They often contain ingredients to keep the eyes well-hydrated.

Mildness: Eye lotions are typically milder than eye drops, reducing the risk of irritation.

Containers: – Eye lotions are dispensed in coloured fluted bottles with screw cap.

Labelling: – For external use only, Not to be used after 24 hours or 7 days, Not to be diluted.

3. Eye ointment:

Eye ointment is defined as soft, sterile semi-solid preparations containing medicaments intended for applications to the conjunctival sac or to the eyelid margin.

Eye ointment base:

The eye ointment base contains the following ingredients they are.

Wool fat                          -10%

Liquid paraffin                 -10%

Yellow soft paraffin          -80%

Wool fat: It is used to produce emulsification of the aqueous solution and it promotes absorption of the medicament.

Liquid paraffin: It produces smooth consistency to the preparation so that application to the eye lids is easier.

Yellow soft paraffin: It acts as base white soft paraffin should not be used because it produces irritation.

Preparation of eye ointment:

1.     Melt Wool fat, Yellow soft paraffin on a water bath.

2.     Add Liquid paraffin.

3.     Filter through coarse filter paper placed in heated funnel.

4.     It is sterilised by dry heat method (160OC for 2 hrs).

5.     Incorporate the medicament with the eye ointment base.

6.      Pack in sterile containers.

White soft paraffin is not used in the preparation of ointment base because it is prepared by bleaching the yellow soft paraffin.

Some of the bleaching agent may remain sticking to the base even after careful washing agent when used in the eye may leads to irritation.

Wool fat is used in order to ensure satisfactory emulsification of the solution and helps in the absorption of active ingredients.

Liquid paraffin is incorporated to reduce the viscosity of the base, so that it can be easily expelled from the collapsible tube and apply to the eye.

Ideal Characteristics:

Long-Lasting: Eye ointments provide longer-lasting relief due to their thicker consistency.

Barrier Function: They create a barrier on the eye’s surface, protecting it from environmental factors.

Slow Release: The gel-like texture allows for slow and sustained release of medication.

Storage: – Eye ointments are packed in small, sterilized collapsible tubes of suitable metal or plastic containers (multi-dose container). Eye ointments are also packed in soft gelatin capsules (single dose container) with applicator tips.

Labelling: – “Sterile” “for external use only”

Eye Packs

Eye packs are not a medication but rather a soothing remedy for various eye discomforts. They come in the form of compresses or masks, designed to alleviate eye strain, dryness, and puffiness.

Ideal Characteristics

  • Soothing Effect: Eye packs offer immediate relief and comfort.
  • Reusability: Many eye packs are reusable and can be warmed or cooled to suit different needs.
  • Comfortable Design: They are designed for comfort and ease of use.


Manufacturing eye packs involves selecting appropriate materials, such as gel or grains, and creating a comfortable and functional design.


Eye packs do not require specific storage conditions beyond keeping them clean and free from contaminants.

Packaging: Eye packs are usually packaged individually, and the packaging should include instructions for use.

Eye Discs

Eye discs are a unique ophthalmic product. They are solid, dissolvable discs that release medication slowly over time, offering prolonged treatment.

Ideal Characteristics

  • Slow Release: Eye discs are designed to provide a controlled, slow release of medication.
  • Longevity: They offer sustained treatment, reducing the need for frequent administration.
  • Non-Invasive: Eye discs are easy to apply and do not involve drops or ointments.


Creating eye discs involves carefully formulating the medication into a solid, slow-release form and packaging them appropriately.

Storage: Eye discs should be stored in a cool, dry place, following the manufacturer’s instructions.

Packaging: Eye discs are typically individually sealed in sterile packaging for safe and convenient use.

Intraocular Dosage Forms

Intraocular dosage forms are specialized ophthalmic products administered directly into the eye. They are used to treat severe eye conditions like macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy.

Ideal Characteristics

  • Precision: Intraocular forms are administered precisely into the eye, targeting the affected area.
  • Potency: They are highly potent to address severe eye conditions.
  • Safety: Administered by trained professionals to ensure safety and effectiveness.


Preparation of intraocular dosage forms involves creating highly concentrated medications designed for direct administration into the eye. These products are prepared with strict quality control measures.

Storage: Intraocular dosage forms are typically stored under specific conditions, as directed by healthcare providers.

Packaging: These specialized products come in sterile packaging and are administered by healthcare professionals, ensuring safe and accurate application.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

  1. Are eye drops and eye ointments the same?
    • No, eye drops are typically liquid, while eye ointments are thicker, gel-like substances.
  2. How should I store my ophthalmic products?
    • Store them in a cool, dry place, away from direct sunlight, and follow the manufacturer’s instructions.
  3. Can I use eye lotions every day?
    • Yes, eye lotions are generally safe for daily use, but consult with your eye care professional for specific guidance.
  4. What are intraocular dosage forms used for?
    • Intraocular dosage forms are used to treat severe eye conditions that require direct administration into the eye, such as age-related macular degeneration.
  5. Are eye discs widely available?
    • Eye discs are less common and may require a prescription. Consult with your eye care specialist for more information.

 For Ophthalmic Products PDF Notes click here


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