Pathology of Urine



Urine is the chief excretory fluid eliminated through
kidney. Most of the waste products are eliminated through urine. Urine shows
the presence of large number of organic & in-organic substances.

Normal Constituents of Urine

1. Urea: – It is main end
product of protein metabolism. About 25-30gm of urea is excreted per 24 hrs.

2. Uric acid: – It is the end
product of purine metabolism. About 0.7gm of acid excreted through urine per 24

3. Creatinine:-


It is the product of the breakdown of creatine. About 1.7gm
of Creatinine is excreted through urine per 24 hrs.

Abnormal Constituents of

Substances  which  are 
not  present  in 
easily  detectable  amount 
in  urine  of 
normal healthy  individuals,  but present 
in urine  under  certain 
diseased  conditions  are 
said  to be Abnormal or
Pathological Constituents of urine.

The Abnormal Constituents are:-

1. Reducing sugars like glucose, fructose, lactose, and

2. Proteins like albumin, globulin.

3. Ketone bodies like Acetone, Acetoacetic acid, Beta –
hydroxyl butyric acid.

4. Bile salts like sodium glycolate, sodium taracolate.

5. Bile pigments like bilurubin, biliverdin.

6. Blood

7. Pus

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