Cosmetics for face – Industrial pharmacy – I B. Pharma 5th Semester PDF Notes

Cosmetics for face

Cosmetics for face

Learning objectives

At the end of this lecture, the student will be able to:

  • Explain the structure of skin
  • Describe various skin products
  • List ingredients used in skin creams
  • Explain the evaluation of skin creams


  • Skin is a part of the integumentary system (Protects the body from damage)
  • It is the largest organ of the body and constitutes about 16% of body weight
  • Its total surface area is about 1.2-2.2 m2
  • Mammalian skin is composed of three primary layers:
  1. Epidermis-which provides waterproofing and serves as a barrier to infection
  2. Dermis-which serves as a location for the appendages of skin
  3. The deeper subcutaneous tissue (hypodermis)-is made of fat and connective tissue.

Skin physiology

1. Epidermis: In order from the deepest layer of the epidermis to the most superficial, these layers (strata) are the

  • Stratum basale (Stratum germinativum)- deepest layer
  • Stratum spinosum- responsible for the skin’s strength and flexibility
  • Stratum granulosum- cells contain granules
  • Stratum lucidum- found on the palms of our hands and the soles of our feet
  • Stratum corneum- The most superficial layer of the epidermis from which dead skin sheds

Stratum corneum –

– Only layer visible to the eyes

– The cells of the stratum corneum are also surrounded by lipids (fats) that help repel water as well

– It is 10 µm when it is dry

– It is 10 µm when it is dry

– Can take up moisture up to 15 -20 %

– When occlusive dressing / cream applied over the skin- prevent the evaporation of water

2. Dermis:

– It consist of dense network of structural protein fibres

– It is about 0.2-0.3mm thickness

– It contains blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, nerve endings

Sebaceous glands

  • Are exocrine glands that are found throughout all areas of the skin except the palms of the hands and soles of the feet
  • There are two types of sebaceous gland, those connected to hair follicles, in pilosebaceous units, and those that exist independently
  • Sebaceous glands are found in hair-covered areas, where they are connected to hair follicles
  • Sebaceous glands secrete the oily, waxy substance called sebum that is made of triglycerides, wax esters, squalene, and metabolites of fat-producing cells
  • Sebum waterproofs and lubricates the skin and hair of mammals

Functions of the skin

  1. It may serve to waterproof, cushion, and protect the deeper tissues
  2. Excrete wastes, and regulate temperature
  3. Attachment site for sensory receptors to detect pain, sensation, pressure, and temperature

Types of skin

Normal Skin – Feels neither tight nor oily

Dry Skin – Feels Tight

Oily Skin – Feels oily all over

Combination Skin – Oily t-zone, normal/ dry cheeks

Sensitive Skin – Red, irritated tight, patchy

Cosmetics for face

Cosmetic creams

  • Preparations for topical application to the skin
  • They are semi solid emulsions of O/W or W/O type
  • Usually marketed on the basis of their broad claims made on their packaging
  • Can also be classified according to their properties or nature of emulsion

According to function

  1. Cleansing creams
  2. Cold creams
  3. Make up creams- Foundation cream and vanishing cream
  4. Moisturizing creams
  5. Night and massage creams
  6. Hand and body creams
  7. All-purpose general creams


  • A cream is a topical preparation for application to the skin
  • Creams are semisolid emulsions that are mixtures of oil and water
  • Can be O/W or W/O type
  • O/W creams are cosmetically acceptable as they are less greasy and easily washed off with water
  • W/O creams are greasy but have moisturizing properties


A lotion is a low to medium viscosity emulsion for topical application

Can be medicated or non-medicated

They can be O/W or W/O type

Cleansing creams and Lotions

  • They are used for the purpose of removing facial makeup, surface grime from atmosphere, oil and grease from sebum, dead cells dirt or soil from the skin
  • It is an alternative to using plain water or soaps for cleaning the skin
  • Plain water is ineffective against oils
  • Soaps remove too much oil from the skin and make it rough and dry


  • Should be easy to apply
  • Should have low viscosity to spread easily on the skin
  • Should have good appearance and stability
  • Should not cause irritation to skin
  • Should not melt or liquefy when applied on to skin (except liquefying cream)
  • Should form an emollient film on the skin
  • Should not make the skin dry
  • Should remove chemicals of facial make-up and oil effectively
  • They should help in softening, lubricating and protecting skin apart from cleaning

Types of cleansing creams and lotions

  1. Bees wax-borax emulsion type
  2. Liquefying cream
  3. Acid cleansing cream
  4. Gel like cleansing cream
  5. Lather cleansing cream
  6. Cleansing lotions

Bees wax-borax type/emulsified type

  • It is an oil-water type of emulsion, containing high percentage of mineral oil. This mineral oil helps in imparting cleansing property
  • Emulsifying agent is BEESWAX- BORAX

Formula –



Mineral oil (lubricant)

50 %

Beeswax (emollient and viscosity modifier)

8 %

Microcrystalline wax (lustre)


Borax (buffer)






Distilled water

qs 100%


•The only way beeswax functions as an emulsifier is in combination with borax

•Borax, which is an alkaline material, saponifies beeswax to form soap

• So it’s not the beeswax by itself that is the emulsifier, it’s the resulting soap

• This means that, without borax, beeswax is not an emulsifier at all and needs to be emulsified in lotions and creams just like any other lipophilic (oil-loving) ingredient

Liquefying cream

• Anhydrous, translucent and are formulated with mixture of oils and waxes

• It was made solely from oils and waxes, so was water-free (anhydrous) and was not an emulsion

• They liquefy when gently massaged on the skin

• Preferred for dry skin

• Emollient ingredients such as lanolin and its derivatives, acetyl alcohol, spermaceti and cocoa butter are added to leave behind an oily film on the skin

• A translucent cream can be made opaque by the addition of zinc oxide, titanium dioxide, magnesium stearate or zinc stearate

Formula –



Mineral oil(lubricant)


Petrolatum (protective agent and humectant)


Ozokerite wax( humectant and viscosity enhancer)


Lanolin (emollient)







Acid cleansing cream

• The natural acid layer on the skin is said to offer protection against the invasion of bacteria

• In the alkaline condition, the skin can be more susceptible to attack by pathogenic organisms

• Acid cleansing creams are used for the quick return of skin to normal pH (5 to 6)

• Contain mild acids like citric, tartaric, lactic or malic acids

• Emulsifying agents like cetyl alcohol, stearyl alcohol are used

Formula –



Bees wax

4 %



Stearyl alcohol






Lactic acid


Distilled water

Qs 100%


Gel cleansing cream

• Gel like appearance and texture

Formula –



Stearic acid


Mineral oil


Triethanolamine oleate




Anhydrous lanolin


Propylene glycol






Distilled water

q.s 100%


Cleansing lotions

• More popular than creams

• Spreads easily on the skin

• Triethanolamine is used to adjust viscosity

• Lotions should be pourable in nature

Formula –



Mineral oil


Triethanolamine stearate


Bees wax

2 %





Distilled water

q.s 100%


Lather cleansing cream

• Contain surfactants

• Produce lather when mixed with water

• Similar to a face wash

Formula –



Stearic acid


White soft paraffin


Mineral oil


Cetostearyl alcohol


Isopropyl myristate




Sorbitan mono oleate

2 %

Sodium lauryl sulphate


Polyoxyethylene sorbitan mono laurate




Perfume and Preservatives


Distilled water

q.s 100%



• Oldest and most popular preparation

• Invented by Galen

• Useful for dry skin and commonly used in winter

•They are water-in-oil type of emulsions

• On application to the skin, they produce cooling sensation due to the slow evaporation of waterhence known as cold creams

• They are emollient in nature and the layer left on the skin after application is non-occlusive

• They are water-in-oil type of emulsions made using beeswaxborax emulsifying system

Formula –



White beeswax(emollient)


Mineral oil(lubricant)


Distilled water(vehicle)


Borax(to aid emulsification)





Manufacture – COLD CREAM

• The waxes are first melted in the oil with other oil soluble ingredients and heated to a temperature of 75-80oC

•The aqueous phase containing the borax and any other water soluble ingredients is heated to a similar temperature and added to the oil/fat mixture with slow stirring

•The perfume is added when cool and the cream filled warm

•For large scale production, filling is carried out in two stages- The jar is filled almost to the top of the jar when the cream is hot and then allowed to set

•The final surface of the cream is obtained by finishing with a sufficient quantity of cream which is just pourable

• The consistency and texture of the product can be varied by replacing a part of the mineral oil with white petroleum jelly (upto15%)

•Use of Iso Propyl myristate in the oil phase increases the thixotropic properties and allows the cream to spread easily and improves the cleansing action of the product

•The basic function of a cold cream is a cleansing agent and the emulsified product helps in penetration of oil and fatty material


• Vanishing creams get their name from the fact that they seem to disappear when spread on the skin

• The first commercial vanishing cream, Hazeline Snow, was introduced by Burroughs Wellcome in 1892. Pond’s, whose name is closely linked with vanishing creams, began production of their Pond’s Vanishing Cream in 1904.

• They are applied to the skin to provide a smooth emollient base before the application of face powder and other make up preparations.

•They help the powder to adhere to the skin and also act as a skin protective to prevent the damaging effects of the environment

•The original foundation creams were called vanishing creams because they disappear when rubbed into the skin

• They are always O/W emulsions, the main constituent being water.

Raw Materials

1. Stearic acid

Vanishing creams are based on stearic acid which is partially saponified with an alkali and the bulk of the acid is emulsified with the soap thus formed

•Only the finest quality triple pressed stearic acid of melting point about 560C should be used

•Pearliness or satiny appearance of the cream is attributed to stearic acid

•This is because of the crystallization of stearic acid in the minutest laminae from which light is reflected at any angle

• Stearic acid melts above body temperature and crystallizes in a form so as to be invisible providing a non- greasy film

•Best results are obtained with 16-20% of stearic acid

2. Alkalis

i) Alkali hydroxides – giver better products

E.g KOH and a mixture of NaOH and KOH will give soft soap

ii) Alkali carbonates – are not preferred because the CO2 released during their addition to stearic acid cannot be removed easily during their addition to stearic acid cannot be removed easily

•This results in sinking of the cream

iii) Borax – produces a white cream, but with a grainy texture

iv) Triethanolamine – is excellent

v) Ammonia- results in discolouration of cream

3. Humectants

• Glycerine are usually added to reduce the rate of drying out of the cream and to prevent crust formation in the jar pack

• As a humectant, glycerin works to moisturize the skin by drawing water from the air into the skin’s outer layer

• It also forms a protective layer that helps prevent moisture loss.

• Should not exceed 10%

4. Iso Propyl myristate

• In the oil phase increases the thixotropic properties and allows the cream to spread easily and improves the cleansing action of the product

5. Cetyl alcohol

• Is used for its emollient effect and also improves stability at a conc. of 0.5-1%

6. Cetostearyl alcohol

• Is an emulsion stabilizer, opacifying agent (reduces the clear and transparent appearance) and viscosity modifier

7. Perfume

• Geranium, sandal wood, patchouli, ylang- ylang, lavender oil

• Oils containing indiole, vanillin, eugenol and musk should be avoided as they discolour creams

Formula –Vanishing Cream



Stearic acid

180 g

Cetyl alcohol


Iso propyl myristate

20 g

B Potassium hydroxide

10 g


80 g

Water qs




Methyl paraben


Propyl paraben




1. Creams are semisolid emulsions containing mixture of oil and water. There consistency varies between liquids and solids

2. These type of creams are water-in-oil type of emulsions. They produce cooling sensation by the evaporation of water, after their application on to the skin, hence known as cold creams

3. These creams are also referred to as “day cream” as they are applied during day time. These cream provide emollient as well as protective action to the skin against environmental condition by forming a semi-occlusive residual film. This film is neither greasy nor oily.

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

What are the essential face cosmetics for a basic makeup routine?

Essential face cosmetics include foundation, blush, eyeshadow, eyeliner, mascara, lipstick, and lip gloss.

How do I choose the right foundation shade for my skin tone?

Test foundation shades on your jawline or wrist to find the one that closely matches your skin tone in natural light.

What is the purpose of primer in face makeup?

Primer creates a smooth base for makeup, helps it last longer, and minimizes the appearance of pores and fine lines.

How can I make my makeup last all day?

Use a makeup setting spray, choose long-wear products, and apply a translucent setting powder to keep your makeup in place.

What is contouring and highlighting in face makeup?

Contouring uses darker shades to create shadows and define features, while highlighting uses lighter shades to accentuate high points of the face, such as cheekbones.

Are there specific makeup products for sensitive skin?

Yes, there are makeup products designed for sensitive skin, often labeled as hypoallergenic or fragrance-free. They are formulated to minimize irritation.

How do I prevent makeup from caking or creasing on my face?

Use a good moisturizer, apply makeup in thin layers, and set it with a light dusting of translucent powder to prevent caking and creasing.

Can I wear makeup every day, or should I give my skin a break?

It’s advisable to give your skin occasional makeup-free days to allow it to breathe and rejuvenate.

What are some makeup removal tips for thorough cleansing?

Use a gentle makeup remover or micellar water, followed by a cleanser to ensure all makeup is thoroughly removed before bedtime.

Is it necessary to follow a skincare routine alongside makeup application?

Yes, a proper skincare routine is essential to maintain healthy skin. Cleanse, moisturize, and protect your skin from the sun, especially when wearing makeup regularly.

What are some makeup trends for different seasons or occasions?

Makeup trends vary with seasons and occasions. For example, bright colors and lightweight products are popular for summer, while darker shades and bold looks are favored for special occasions.

Are there any makeup products that offer SPF protection?

Yes, some foundations, tinted moisturizers, and powders contain SPF, providing added protection against the sun’s harmful rays.

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