Drug Information Center

Drug
Information Center

Content

       drug
information services and its importance

       Sources
of drug information

       Steps
involved in answering DI query

Objective

After completion of this lecture, student will be able
to:

       Explain
the importance of drug information service

       Differentiate
the sources of drug information

       Describe
the steps involved in answering DI query

       Outline
the requirements for establishing a DIC

Introduction to Drug Information Services

Definition

       Drug
information refers to the provision of unbiased, well referenced and critically
evaluated up-to-date information on any aspects of drug use

       Drug
information centre (DIC) refers to the specialised facility that provides drug
information to those who need it

Why Drug Information ?

       To
meet an indicated demand from health professionals

       To
support appropriate, cost effective drug use

       Enhance
the quality of patient care

Providers of Drug Information

Should be:

       Knowledgeable
about data storage and retrieval methods

       Able
to objectively evaluate scientific literature

       Able
to apply information to the specific patient situation

       An
effective communicator with patients, health care professionals, administrators
and the media

Drug Information Center

       A
source of selected comprehensive DI for health care professionals

       Stored
information is retrieved, selected, evaluated and disseminated in response to
specific questions

Drug Information Resources

                There
are three sources

       Primary
(Journals)

       Secondary
(Indexing & Abstracting Services)

       Tertiary
(Text Books)

Primary Sources

Advantages

       Provide
the most current information

       Share
opinion with other health professionals

       Keeps
abreast of professional news

       Keeps
up with the new developments in pathophysiology, diagnostic agents and
therapeutic regimen

Limitations

       No
guarantee of accuracy

       Inadequacy
of articles are common

Secondary Sources

Advantages

       Valuable
tools for quick and selective screening of the primary literature for specific
information, data, citation and articles

       Provide
sufficient information to serve as references for answering drug information
requests

       Example-
medline, medscape, IDIS, Pubmed, Micromedex

Limitations

       Reviews
a finite number of journals

       Usually
describe only articles and clinical studies

       Abstracts
are generally interpretations

Tertiary Sources

Advantages

       Provide
easy and convenient access to a broad spectrum of related topics

       Background
information on drugs and diseases available

Limitations

       Gap
between recent developments and actual publication of books

       Omission
of pertinent data

       Misinterpretation
of literature possible

Internet

       Vast
amount of unregulated health care information

       Offers
both free and pay-per-view access

       Information
is accumulating at a tremendous pace

       Planned
search is more productive than simply browsing or surfing

Limitations

       Relatively
slow speed of retrieval

       Lack
of control over internet content

       Essential
to evaluate any facts critically

MODIFIED SYSTEMATIC APPROACH TO ANSWERING DRUG INFORMATION
QUESTIONS

Introduction

       DI
services may use the systematic approach as the basis for responding to DI
inquiries

       These
approaches have application in any pharmacy practice area

       Use
of modified systematic approach offers practice-related advantages

       Considered
corner stone for ideal practice

Advantages

       Responder
is prompted to practice in a consultative capacity rather than technical manner

       Responder
will perform efficiently

       Selection
of resources may be more efficient

       Expanded
documentation could be very useful for the practitioner

Limitations

       Significant
improvement in patient outcomes or administrative decision has not been proven

       Substantial
energy expenditure in documentation

Steps

       Step
I – Secure demographics of requester

       Step
II – Obtain background information

       Step
III – Determine and categorize ultimate question

       Step
IV – Develop strategy and conduct search

       Step
V  – Perform evaluation, analysis and
synthesis

       Step
VI – Formulate and provide response

       Step
VII -Conduct follow up and documentation

Step I – Secure demographics of requester

       Receipt
of enquiry

       Determine
more directly the requestor’s position, training and anticipated knowledge

       Mechanism
for delivery of the response

       Contact
address

Step II – Obtain background information

       When
background questions are used appropriately, the response to requests is very
efficient

       Should
be sufficiently comprehensive

       Should
be specific for the nature of the request

General background information

       Should
be obtained irrespective of the nature of query

       Requestor’s
name, location/ contact number & affiliation (if HCP)

       Resources
checked / used by the requestor

       Purpose
of enquiry

       Mode
of response

       Response
time

Specific background information

       Depend
upon category of question

        For example if the category of question is
serum or urine therapeutic levels

       Is
the patient currently receiving the drug?

       What
is the disease or underlying pathology being treated?

       What
was the source of sample (blood, urine or saliva)?

       What
was the timing of the sample relative to the drug administration?

       What
is the route of administration?

       What
were the previous concentrations for this patient?

Step III – Determine and categorize ultimate question

       Important
for effective use of the modified systematic approach

       Useful
in the resource selection process

       Availability

       Identification

        General product information

       Cost

       Investigational
drugs

       Compatibility

       Drug
interactions

       ADR

       Dosage
and administration

        Indications

       Poisoning/
toxicity

       Pharmacokinetics

       Pharmacodynamics

       Chemistry

       Drug
therapy selection

       Pregnancy
and lactation

Step IV – Develop strategy and conduct search

       Prioritize
the resources based on the probability containing the information / data
desired

       Resources
should be used based on probable efficiency rather than ease of accesses or
degree of comfort

Summary

       Drug
information service is important to meet an indicated demand from health
professionals

       To
support appropriate, cost effective drug use

       DI
resources include primary, secondary and tertiary resources

       Answering
a DI query should follow modified systematic approach which includes seven
steps

       DI
center should have a multidisciplinary team and adequate resources

 

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