Herbal excipients

Herbal
excipients

Contents

       Herbal
excipients

       Diluents

       Colors

       Oils

       Waxes

       Gums

       Preservatives

       Antioxidants

       Perfumes

Objective

At the end of the session, student will be able to

       Explain
the various excipients used for formulating cosmetics

       Identify
suitable colors for preparing herbal cosmetics

       Explain
the various natural colors available for formulating cosmetics

       Identify
suitable raw materials for preparing herbal cosmetics

       Explain
the various oils available for formulating herbal cosmetics

       Explain
the various waxes available for formulating herbal cosmetics

       Explain
the various gums available for formulating herbal cosmetics

       Explain
the various preservatives available for formulating herbal cosmetics

       Explain
the various antioxidants available for formulating herbal cosmetics

       Explain
the various perfumes available for formulating herbal cosmetics

Herbal excipients

       Excipients
are defined as ‘the substance used as a medium for giving a medicament

       Pharmaceutical
excipients can be defined as non-active ingredients that are mixed with
therapeutically active compound(s) to form medicines.

       The
ingredient which is not an active compound is regarded as an excipients.
Excipients affect the behavior and effectiveness of the drug product more and
more functionality and significantly.

       Plant
derived polymers

       Synthetic
polymers                      

Plant derived polymers

Advantages

       renewable

        can be cultivated or harvested in sustainable
manner

       can
supply constant availability of raw material

Disadvantages

       synthesized
in small quantities

       In
mixtures that are structurally complex, which may differ according to the
location of the plants as well as other variables such as the season

       Result
in a slow and expensive isolation and purification process.

Classification of Herbal Excipients

Excipients are commonly classified according to their
application and function in the drug products:

       Binders,
Diluents

       Lubricants,
Glidants, Disintegrants

       Polishing
Film formers and coatings agents

       Plasticizers,
Colorings

       Suspending
agents Preservatives, antioxidants

Raw
materials – colors

       Nature
–various colors – ancient man

       Later
– used as cosmetics –dying the hairs, painting lips and faces, coloring food,
pharmaceutical and textile products

       Colorant
: Substances added to cosmetics products to colour the product and /or to
impart color to the skin and /or its appendages

       Colour
– an dye, pigment or other substance that can impart colour toa food, drug or
cosmetics or to the human body

       Colored
compounds – chromogen or bear chromophores 
– absorbs light in near UV region

       Pigments
or colors – present – cell sap – anthocyanin (bright red/ blue color),
flavonoids, anthroquinone, napthoquinone, carotenoids, indigoids, benzopyrone
derivatives and diaryl heptanoids

       Synthetic
dyes – toxic

       Natural
dyes – food colorants – approved as food and medicinal dyes

Annatto – carotenoids

       Biological
source
: Dried seeds – Bixa orellana

       Family
: Bixaceae

       Physical
properties
: Yellow orange in color

       Soluble
in alcohol, ether, insoluble in water

       Chemical
constituents
: oleo resin – Bixin (yellow colored carotenoid) – 2.5%

Uses: coloring agent – cosmetics, food, beverages 

Chlorophyll

Biological source: Green leaves of higher plants and
green algae (PRESENT IN CHLOROPLAST)

       Mixture
of 4 pigments – Chlorophyll a (blue black)

                                                                          Chlorophyll b (Green black)

                                                                        Carotene (Orange red)

                                                                        Xanthophyll (Yellow)

Physical properties: Soluble in organic solvent, Slightly
soluble in water

Uses: Coloring agents – soaps, oils and cosmetics

Cochineal

Biological source: Dried female insects Dactilopius
coccus

Family : Coccidae

Production: Bugs –collected – autumn –protected winter

       Killed
–immersion in hot water or exposure to hot sun

       Natural
exposure  – sun – good quality and
variety of dye

       Heating  – sun –color changes to purplish black color
– black grains

       Burning
– sulphur and charcoal fumes –develop purple grey color – black grains

       Tubular
glands  – surface – wax

Chemical constituents: 10 % anthroquinone dye –
Carminic acid , 10% fat, 2% wax                                          

       Uses:
Coloring agent – cosmetics, drug, liquid and solid food preparations

Henna (Lawsonia)

Biological source: Dried leaves – Lawsonia inermis

Family : Lythraceae

Chemical constituents: Lawsone – 2,5 –
diOH-1,4-naphthoquinone (orange dye)

Uses: Hair dye

          Along with
dihydroxy acetone –sunscreen agent

Curcumin – Turmeric

Biological source: Bright yellow coloring material
obtained from the rhizomes of Curcuma longa

Family : Zingiberaceae

Solubility: soluble – ethanol, acetic acid

Insoluble – water, ether

Uses: Food colouring agent

Carthamine

Biological source: Carthamin is a natural red pigment
derived from safflower, Carthamus tinctorius

Family : Asteraceae

Uses: It is used as a dye and a food coloring. As a
food additive, it is known as Natural Red 26.
Carthamin was used as a dye in ancient Egypt. It was used extensively in the
past for dyeing wool for the carpet industry in European countries

Crocin  (Saffron)

Biological source: Golden yellow – orange carotenoid
pigment obtained from the dried stigmas and upper parts of styles of Crocus
sativus

Family : Iridaceae

Solubility: Soluble in hot water and insoluble in
absolute alcohol

Uses : Food colourant

Capsanthin (Paprika)

Biological source: Red colour carotenoid pigment
obtained from the fruit of Capsicum annum

Family : Solanaceae

Constituents: Carotenoid – Capsanthin

Uses: Coloring agent for food, pharmaceutical,
cosmetics and beverages

Lutein (Tagetus)

Biological source: Yellow orange colour carotenoid
pigment obtained from the flower of Tagetus erecta

Family : Compositae

Uses: Coloring agent for food, pharmaceutical

Used as additive of chicken feed to give colour to egg yolks

Betanin (Beet root)

Biological source: Red glycoside obtained from the
beet root, Beta vulgaris

Family :

Uses: Coloring agent for ice cream, powdered soft
drink beverages, soups, in some sugar confectionery

Raw
materials – Oils

       Various
fixed oils and volatile oils – base – various creams, lotions, hair
conditioners, hair tonics

       Certain
oils –therapeutic properties – tooth paste, mouth washes, gargles

       Oils  – vegetable origin and mineral origin –
cosmetics

       Mineral
origin – Light and heavy liquid paraffin

CASTOR OIL

Biological source: Fixed oil – cold compression –
seeds –Ricinus communis

Family : Euphorbiaceae

Physical properties: Pale yellow /colorless,
transparent viscous liquid

Mild odour and bland, slightly acrid taste

Chemical constituents: Trigycerides of Ricinoleic
acid (87%), Oleic acid 7%, linoleic acid 3%, palmetic acid

Uses: Cosmetics – emollient – lipsticks, hair oil and
fixes, eye cream, rouge, stick eye shadow

                                   Topical creams and ointments – 5-12.5%

Almond oil

Biological source: Fixed oil –expression – seeds –
Prunus amygdalus

Family : Rosaceae

Chemical constituents: Glycerides of oleic acid
(77%), linoleic acid, palmitic acid and myristic acid

Uses: Mild emollient – ingredient – cleansing cream,
cold cream and eye cream

Wheat germ oil

Biological source: Fixed oil – wheat germ – Triticum
aestivum

Family : Graminae

Chemical constituents: 44 % – linoleic acid, 10 %
linolic acid, 30 % oleic acid , 4.7% unsaponifiable matter

Uses: Source of natural vitamin E

Arachis oil

Biological source: Fixed oil – expressed – seeds
–cultivated varities – Arachis  hypogaea

Family : Leguminosae

Chemical constituents: Fixed oil

Uses: Preparation – ointments, soaps, emollient,
creams and baby oil

Neem oil

Biological source: Fixed oil – fully matures seeds –
Azadirachta indica

Family : Meliaceae

Chemical constituents: Glycerides of saturated and
unsaturated fatty acids – oleic acid and stearic acid

Uses: Medicated soaps 
– skin diseases

 

Raw
materials – Waxes

       Bases
– cosmetics – mixture of oils, fats and waxes

       Unctuous,
fusible, viscous solid substances – waxy luster

       Esters
– fatty acids – high molecular weight monohydric alcohol – cetyl alcohol and
cholesterol

Commonly used waxes

       Carnauba
wax

       Pisang
wax

       Castor
wax

       Candelilla
wax

       Bees
wax

       Spermaceti
wax

       Paraffin
wax

Carnauba wax

Biological source: Exudates – pores –brazilian wax
palm tree- Copernicia prunifera

Family : Palmae

Chemical constituents: Hydroxylated fatty acids –
carnuabic acid and cerotic acid

Uses: Hard wax – deodorant sticks and other cosmetics

Bees wax – Oldest forms of wax

Biological source: Wax obtained from the honey comb
of bees Apis melifera

Family : Apidae

Chemical constituents: Myricin, melissic acid

Uses: Used in oinments, lipsticks and face creams

Spermaceti

Biological source: Waxy substance obtained from the
head of sperm whale Physeter macrocephalus

Family : Physeteridae

Chemical constituents: Acetyl palmitate, free acetyl
alcohol, esters of lauric, myristic and stearic acids

Uses : Used as emollient – ointments, cold creams

Carnauba Wax

Biological source: Exudate from the pores of leaves
of Brazilian wax palm tree Copernicia prunifera

Family : Palmae

Chemical constituents: Esters of hydroxylated fatty
acids – carnuabic, cerotic and melissyl cerotate

Uses: Used in deplitories and deodarant sticks

Myrica Wax

Biological source: Wax obtained from the peels of
berry of Myrica cerifera

Family : Myricaceae

Chemical constituents: Palmitic, myristic and lauric
acid esters

Uses: Reducess the stickiness of creams and emulsion,
used in hair care preparations – excellent holding properties

Rice bran wax

Biological source: vegetable wax extracted from the
bran oil of rice Oryza sativa

Family : Graminae

Chemical constituents: Aliphatic acids – palmitic
acid, behenic acid and higher alcohol esters like ceryl alcohol, melissyl
alcohol, squalene and phospholipids

Uses: Thickener, binding agent with strong emollient
properties. Used in lipsticks, balms and sun screens

Raw
materials – Gums

       Hydrophobic
or hydrophilic high molecular weight molecules – colloidal properties

       Natural
gums

       Prepared
gums

Natural gums

  1. Sea
    weed gum – agar, algin, carrageenan, laminaran

  1. Plant
    exudates – Acacia, tragacanth, karaya, ghatti

  2. Seed
    gums – Guar gum, isabgol, tamarind, locust bean gum, quince seed gum

Carrageenan

Biological source: Sulphated polysaccharide extract –
sea weed – carageen or Irish mass – Gigartina stellata

Family : Rodophyceae

Uses: Hard lotion – Gelling, emulsifying and
stabilizing agent

Antitartar tooth paste

Hair setting lotion

Gum Tracaganth

Biological source: Dried gummy exudates – stem –
Astragalus gummifer

Family : Leguminosae

Chemical constituents: Tragcanthin – 8-10%, Bassorin
– 60 -70%

Uses: Suspending, thickening and emulsifying agent –
tooth paste, mascara, skin lotions, non greasy hair cream, barrier cream

Gum Acacia

Biological source: Dried gummy exudate – stem and
branches – Acacia senegal

Family : Leguminosae

Chemical constituents: Arabinose, galactose,
rhamnose, glyceronic acid

Uses: Suspending, thickening and emulsifying agent –
barrier cream, face mask

Locust bean gum

Biological source: Endosperm – seeds – Cerotina
siliqua

Family : Leguminosae

Chemical constituents: D – galacto – D –Mannoglycan,
4% Pentan, oxidase and ceratoniase enzyme

Uses: Binder, thickening agent, stabilising agent –
cosmetics

Pectin

Biological source: Purified carbohydrate – acid
hydrolysis – inner portion – rind 
Citrus peels – Citrus limonii or Citrus auranticum

Family : Rutaceae

Uses: Emulsifying and gelling agent – cosmetics

Xanthan gum

Biological source: Fermentation – bacteria –
Xanthomonas compestris on high molecular weight polysaccharides

Chemical constituents: D – glucose, D – glucouronic
acid and D – mannose

Uses: Binder, thickening agent – cosmetics

Preparation of antitartar toothpaste and sunscreen
preparation

Raw
material – Preservatives

       Preservative
– “any substances which are exclusively or mainly intended to inhibit the
development of microorganisms in the cosmetic product”.

        Preservatives help to preserve the formula and
ensure the durability of your cosmetic products.

       They
are essential for a formula containing water. Indeed, the presence of water in
a formula creates a favorable environment for microorganisms development.

       Used
in cosmetics is essential to prevent alterations caused by microorganisms and
contamination during formulation, shipment, storage or consumer use.

Synthetic Preservatives

Advantages
Using synthetic preservatives allows you to have a good understanding of the
safety and toxicity profile of the ingredient. Low concentrations of synthetic
preservatives effectively preserve the product.

       Synthetic
preservatives have a broad spectrum of activity against bacteria and
fungi.

       They
are more affordable than natural preservatives.

Organohalogen compounds

Organohalogen compounds are a large class of natural and
synthetic chemical that contain at least one following halogens: fluorine,
chlorine, bromine, iodine.

       Triclosan

       Methylisothiazolinone

       Methylchloroisothiazolinone

       Chlorphenesin

       Chloroxylenol

Aldehyde and Glycol ethers

       Formaldehyde

       Benzylhemiformal

       Diazolidinyl
urea

       Imidazolidinyl
urea

       2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol

       DMDM
hydantoin

       MDM
hydantoin

       phenoxyethanol

       2-butoxyethanol

       2-(2-butoxyethoxy)-ethanol

       2-(2-ethoxy)-ethanol

Parabens

       Parabens
are a series of parahydroxybenzoates or esters of parahydroxybenzoic acid. They
are known as preservatives and used for their bactericidal and fungicidal
properties.

       Methylparaben

       Ethylparaben

       Propylparaben

       Butylparaben

       Isobutylparaben

Natural preservatives

       List
of the most common natural preservatives found in cosmetic products

       Benzoic
Acid

       Sorbic
Acid

       Salicylic
Acid

       Alcohol

Antioxidant preservatives

       An
antioxidant is a substance that inhibits oxidation or reactions promoted by
oxygen, peroxides or free radicals.

Synthetic antioxidant

       Butylated
hydroxytoluene (BHT)

       Butylated
hydroxyanisole (BHA)

Natural antioxidant

       Tocopherol
(Vitamin E)

       Ascorbic
Acid (Vitamin C)

       Polyphenols

       Flavonoids


Raw
materials – Antioxidants

       Cosmetics
– prone to spoilage – oxidation of fats, fatty acids and other organic material
by atmospheric oxygen

       Antioxidants
– keeps oils and fats from rancid

       Concentration
– 0.02% – 0.1%

Ideal characters

       Stable

       Effective
over a wide PH range

       Colorless
and odorless

       Non
toxic

       Compatible
– other ingredients and packaging material

Phenolic antioxidants

  1. Vitamin
    E

       Natural
antioxidant – topically applied –UV radiation

       Shown
to reduce – erythema, edema and sun burn

       Increase
SPF  – antiageing effect

2. Gallate – Methyl, ethyl, propyl, octyl gallate

3. BHA – Butyrated hydroxy anisole

4. BHT – Butyrated hydroxy toulene

BHA and BHT

       Neutalise
fee oxygen radicals

       Prevent
auto oxidation of organic materials – rancidity of fats and oils

       Extend  – product shelf life

       Effective
with EDTA

       Concentration
– 0.01 – 0.1%

       Preserve
and stabilize – creams, lotions, shampoos, make ups and sunscreen lotions

Non – Phenolic antioxidants

  1. Vitamin
    C/Ascorbic acid

       Protects
skin – oxidative damage – UV rays

       Anti
ageing property – avoids hyper pigmentation

       Anti
inflammatory

       Effect
is increased with Vitamin C and E

       Concentration
– 0.2 – 4 %

       Used  – lotions, creams, sun protection products,
shampoos and lipsticks

        

2. Lecithin – Synergist – phenolic antioxidant

3. Coenzyme Q 10

       Benzoquinone
compound – plant and human tissues

       Membranes
of endoplasmic reticulum, lysosomes, vesicles, inner membrane of mitochondria

       Because
of ability to transfer electron – antioxidant

       Concentration
– 2-6%

       Anti
wrinkle property

4. Grape seed extract

       Proanthocyanidins

5. Pine bark extract

       Pyenogenol  -wine, cranberries, green and black tea,
black currant onions

Raw
materials – Perfumes

       Per
– through, Fumum – smoke

       Early
perfumes – pleasant smells – burning wood and grass

       Component   
impart fragrance – cosmetic products

       Used  – products – bath salt to skin lotions, face
creams, sprays, shampoos and aromatic substances

       Level
of fragrances – varies – product to product

       Face
creams – 0.01% fragrance/weight

       Soap
– 0.5% – 3%

Classified

       Ottos
– concentrated principle – natural flowers

       Floral
oils –Rose, jasmine, broom, gardenia, orchid

       Essential
oils – Eucalyptus, peppermint, mint, citrus, vetver oil, clove, lemon and
coriander oil

       Dipropylene
glycol

       Benzaldehyde

       Benzophenone

       Benzyl
benzoate

 

Summary

       Colorant
: Substances added to cosmetics products to colour the product and /or to
impart color to the skin and /or its appendages

       Natural
pigments

       Various
fixed oils and volatile oils – base – various creams, lotions, hair
conditioners, hair tonics

       Certain
oils –therapeutic properties – tooth paste, mouth washes, gargles

       Bases
– cosmetics – mixture of oils, fats and waxes

       Unctuous,
fusible, viscous solid substances – waxy luster

       Esters
– fatty acids – high molecular weight monohydric alcohol – cetyl alcohol and
cholesterol

       Hydrophobic
or hydrophilic high molecular weight molecules colloidal properties

       Used
in cosmetics is essential to prevent alterations caused by microorganisms and
contamination during formulation, shipment, storage or consumer use.

       Antioxidants
– keeps oils and fats from rancid

 

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