Instrumental Methods of Analysis – B. Pharma 7th Semester PDF Notes

Instrumental Methods of Analysis – B. Pharma 7th Semester PDF Notes

Instrumental Method of Analysis Notes

Instrumental Methods of Analysis 7th Semester Notes

Scope: Instrumental Methods of Analysis deals with the application of instrumental methods in qualitative and quantitative analysis of drugs.  This subject is designed to impart fundamental knowledge on the principles and instrumentation of spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques. This also emphasizes theoretical and practical knowledge of modern analytical instruments that are used for drug testing.

Objectives: Upon completion of the course the student shall be able to

1. Understand the interaction of matter with electromagnetic radiation and its applications in drug analysis

2. Understand the chromatographic separation and analysis of drugs.

3. Perform quantitative & qualitative analysis of drugs using various analytical instruments.

Instrumental Methods of Analysis Course Content:

Instrumental Methods of Analysis UNIT –I

UV Visible spectroscopy

Electronic transitions, chromophores, auxochromes, spectral shifts, solvent effect on absorption spectra, Beer and Lambert’s law, Derivation, and deviations.

Instrumentation – Sources of radiation, wavelength selectors, sample cells, detectors- Photo tube, Photomultiplier tube, Photo voltaic cell, Silicon Photodiode.

Applications – Spectrophotometric titrations, Single component, and multi-component analysis

Fluorimetry

Theory, Concepts of singlet, doublet, and triplet electronic states, internal and external conversions, factors affecting fluorescence, quenching, instrumentation, and applications of Fluorimetry

Instrumental Methods of Analysis UNIT –II

IR spectroscopy

Introduction, fundamental modes of vibrations in polyatomic molecules, sample handling, factors affecting vibrations

Electromagnetic spectrum

Instrumentation – Sources of radiation, wavelength selectors, detectors – Golay cell, Bolometer, Thermocouple, Thermister, Pyroelectric detector, and applications

Interpretation of IR Spectra

Flame PhotometryPrinciple, interferences, instrumentation, and applications

Atomic absorption spectroscopy Principle, interferences, instrumentation, and applications

Atomic emission spectroscopy Principle, interferences, instrumentation, and applications

NepheloturbidometryPrinciple, instrumentation, and applications

Instrumental Methods of Analysis UNIT –III

Introduction to chromatography

Adsorption and partition column chromatography Methodology, advantages, disadvantages, and applications.

Thin layer chromatography- Introduction, Principle, Methodology, Rf values, advantages, disadvantages, and applications.

Paper chromatographyIntroduction, methodology, development techniques, advantages, disadvantages, and applications

Electrophoresis– Introduction, factors affecting electrophoretic mobility, Techniques of paper, gel, capillary electrophoresis, applications

Instrumental Methods of Analysis UNIT –IV

Gas chromatographyIntroduction, theory, instrumentation, derivatization, temperature programming, advantages, disadvantages, and applications

High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) – Introduction, theory, instrumentation, advantages, and applications.

Instrumental Methods of Analysis UNIT –V

Ion exchange chromatography- Introduction, classification, ion exchange resins, properties, mechanism of the ion exchange process, factors affecting ion exchange, methodology, and applications

Gel chromatography- Introduction, theory, instrumentation, and applications

Affinity chromatography- Introduction, theory, instrumentation, and applications

Other Topic related to Instrumental Method of Analysis:

Applications of Instrumental Methods in Pharmaceutical Analysis

Importance of Instrumental Methods in Pharmaceutical Analysis

Ultraviolet visible UV vis spectroscopy

Qualitative applications of UV Visible spectrophotometry

Quantitative methodology

Dispersive IR spectrophotometers

Fourier Transform Infra-red spectrophotometers

Sample handling and interpretation of IR spectra

Spectroscopy and Electromagnetic Spectrum

Instrumental Methods of Analysis 7th Semester PDF Notes

Instrumental Methods of Analysis (Practical)

1. Determination of absorption maxima and effect of solvents on absorption maxima of organic compounds

2. Estimation of dextrose by colorimetry

3. Estimation of sulfanilamide by colorimetry

4. Simultaneous estimation of ibuprofen and paracetamol by UV spectroscopy

5. Assay of paracetamol by UV- Spectrophotometry

6. Estimation of quinine sulfate by fluorimetry

7. Study of quenching of fluorescence

8. Determination of sodium by flame photometry

9. Determination of potassium by flame photometry

10. Determination of chlorides and sulfates by nephelo turbidometry

11. Separation of amino acids by paper chromatography

12. Separation of sugars by thin-layer chromatography

13. Separation of plant pigments by column chromatography

14. Demonstration experiment on HPLC

15. Demonstration experiment on Gas Chromatography

Instrumental Methods of Analysis Notes Recommended Books (Latest Editions)

1. Instrumental Methods of Chemical Analysis by B.K Sharma

2. Organic spectroscopy by Y.R Sharma

3. Textbook of Pharmaceutical Analysis by Kenneth A. Connors

4. Vogel’s Text book of Quantitative Chemical Analysis by A.I. Vogel

5. Practical Pharmaceutical Chemistry by A.H. Beckett and J.B. Stenlake

6. Organic Chemistry by I. L. Finar

7. Organic spectroscopy by William Kemp

8. Quantitative Analysis of Drugs by D. C. Garrett

9. Quantitative Analysis of Drugs in Pharmaceutical Formulations by P. D. Sethi

10. Spectrophotometric identification of Organic Compounds by Silverstein

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