(Naso – Pulmonary Drug Delivery Systems)
At the end of the
session students will be able to:
the need for nasal sprays, differentiate nasal sprays with other nasopulmonary
the advantages and limitations of nasal sprays
formulation aspects of nasal sprays
marketed formulations of nasal sprays
• Intranasal drug delivery is recognized to be a useful and
reliable alternative to oral and parenteral routes.
• The nasal route of drug delivery can be used for both
local and systemic drug delivery. For instance, localized nasal drug delivery
is usually used to treat conditions related to the nasal cavity, such as
congestion, rhinitis, sinusitis and related allergic conditions.
• A diverse range of drugs including corticosteroids,
anti-histamines, anti-cholinergic and vasoconstrictors can be administered
locally. In recent years, achieving a systemic drug action using the nose as
the entry portal into the body has received more attention.
• Also, the nasal delivery seems to be a favorable way to
circumvent the obstacles for bloodbrain barrier (BBB) allowing the direct drug
delivery in the biophase of central nervous system (CNS)-active compounds.
• It has also been considered to the administration of
• Now a day’s multiple types of formulation are used to
administer drug by nasal rout, which includes nasal spray, nasal drop, nasal
powder, nasal gels & nasal insert etc.
• Administration of drugs through the nose in the spray
dosage form is a noninvasive method that gives rapid onset of drug action.
Because the nasals spray dosage form is cost-effective, easy to use/carry and
self-administrable, it has high patient compliance.
• Therefore, nasal drug delivery has become a popular route
of drug administration and has strong growth opportunity
of Nasal Drug Delivery System
1. Intranasal administration offers several practical
advantages from the viewpoint of patients (non-invasiveness, essentially
painless, ease drug delivery and favorable tolerability profile)
2. Rapid drug absorption.
3. Quick onset of action.
4. Hepatic first – pass metabolism is absent.
5. The bioavailability of larger drug molecules can be
improved by means of absorption enhancer or other approach.
6. Better nasal bioavailability for smaller drug molecules.
1. Dose is limited because of relatively small area
available for the absorption of drug.
2. Time available for drug absorption is limited.
3. Diseased condition of nose impairs drug absorption.
4. The absorption enhancers used to improve nasal drug
delivery system may have histological toxicity which is not yet clearly
5. Absorption surface area is less when compared to GIT.
6. Nasal irritation
7. Certain surfactants used as chemical enhancers may
disrupt and even dissolve Membrane in high concentration
of Nasal Sprays
• Nasal spray drug products contain therapeutically active
ingredients (drug substances) dissolved or suspended in solutions or mixtures
of excipients (e.g., preservatives, viscosity modifiers, emulsifiers, buffering
agents) in nonpressurized dispensers that deliver a spray containing a metered
dose of the active ingredient.
• The dose can be metered by the spray pump.
• A nasal spray unit can be designed for unit dosing or can
discharge up to several hundred metered sprays of formulation containing the
• Energy is required for dispersion of the formulation as a
• This is typically accomplished by forcing the formulation
through the nasal actuator and its orifice.
• The formulation and the container closure system
(container, closure, pump, and any protective packaging) collectively
constitute the drug product.
• The design of the container closure system affects the
dosing performance of the drug product.
• Both solution and suspension formulations can be
formulated into nasal sprays.
An ideal nasal drug candidate should possess the
• Appropriate aqueous solubility to provide the desired dose
in a 25–150 ml volume of formulation.
• Appropriate nasal absorption properties.
• No nasal irritation from the drug.
• A suitable clinical rationale for nasal dosage forms, e.g.
rapid onset of action.
• Low dose. Generally, below 25 mg per dose.
• No toxic nasal metabolites.
• No offensive odors/aroma associated with the drug.
• Suitable stability characteristics.
2) Excipients used in
nasal spray formulations
There are various types of excipients used in nasal
formulations. Commonly used and frequently added excipients are as follows:
Nasal secretions may alter the pH of the administrated dose
which can affect the concentration of un-ionized drug available for absorption.
Therefore, an adequate formulation buffer capacity may be
required to maintain the pH in-situ.
Examples of buffer used in nasal spray sodium phosphate,
Sodium citrate, citric acid.
Aqueous solubility of drug is always a limitation for nasal drug
delivery in solution.
Conventional solvents or co-solvents such as glycols, small
quantities of alcohol, Transcutol (diethylene glycol monoethyl ether), medium
chain glycerides and Labrasol (saturated polyglycolyzed C8- C10 glyceride) can
be used to enhance the solubility of drugs.
Other compounds can be used like, the use of surfactants or
cyclodextrins such as HP–s Cyclodextrin that serve as a biocompatible
solubilizer and stabilizer in combination with lipophilic absorption enhancers.
In these cases, their impact on nasal irritancy should be
Most nasal formulations are aqueous based so needs
preservatives to prevent microbial growth.
Parabens, phenyl ethyl alcohol, benzalkonium chloride, EDTA
and benzoyl alcohol are some of the commonly used preservatives in nasal
A small quantity of
antioxidants may be required to prevent drug oxidation. Commonly used antioxidants
are sodium bisulfite, butylated hydroxytoluene, sodium metabisulfite and
antioxidants do not affect drug absorption or cause nasal irritation.
Because of allergic and chronic diseases there can be crusts
and drying of mucous membrane.
Certain preservatives/ antioxidants are also likely to cause
nasal irritation especially when used in higher quantities.
Adequate intranasal moisture is essential for preventing
dehydration. Therefore, humectants can be added especially in gel-based nasal
nasal irritation and do not affect drug absorption.
Common examples include glycerin, sorbitol and mannitol
Surfactant incorporation into nasal dosage forms can modify
the permeability of nasal membranes, which may facilitate the nasal absorption
It also increase stability of suspension.
Common examples include Polysorbates.
g) Bioadhesive polymers
is capable of interacting with biological material through interfacial forces
and being retained on such material for prolonged periods of time is called as
bioadhesive polymer. They are also called as mucoadhesive if biological
material is mucus membrane.
The bioadhesive force of a polymer material is dependent on
the nature of the polymer, the surrounding medium (pH), swelling and
physiological factors (mucin turnover, disease state).
From a safety (nasal irritancy) point of view use of a
combination of carriers is often recommended.
h) Penetration enhancer
Chemical penetration enhancers are widely used in the nasal
Used to adjust the tonicity of the formulation
Sodium chloride, Dextrose
Used to adjust pH same to physiological conditions and
Sodium hydroxide, hydrochloric acid sulphuric acid
Purging used to reduce oxidation
To avoid the microbial growth in the formulation
Benzalkonium chloride, ethanol, propylene glycol, Beczoyl
It gives the buffer capacity to formulation at desire Ph
Sodium citrate, Sodium Phosphate
Increases suspendability and stability of suspension
chelate with ions present in the formulation and increases
Increases viscosity and suspendability of suspension
CMC, Na CMC
Helps to improve solubility
Alcohol, PEG 400, Propylene Glycol
Used to maintain humidification in the formulation