Ø  Definition of nutraceuticals

Ø  Classification of nutraceuticals

Ø  Market and growth

Ø  Health benefits and role of
nutraceuticals in Diabetes, CVD, Cancer and irritable bowel syndrome and GID

Ø  Source and Health benefits of Alfa
Alfa, Chicory and Fenugreek

Ø  Source and Health benefits of Honey,
Amla, Ashwagandha


At the
end of this lecture, student will be able to

Ø  Define nutraceuticals

Ø  Classify nutraceuticals with

Ø  Discuss the Market and growth of

Ø  Describe Health benefits of
nutraceuticals in diabetes , CVD, Cancer and irritable bowel syndrome and GID

Ø  Discuss the health benefits of Alfa
Alfa, Chicory, Fenugreek and Ginseng

Ø  Discuss the health benefits of
Honey, Amla, Ashwagandha


     “Any substance
may be considered as food or part of food, which in addition to its normal
nutritive value provides health benefits including prevention of diseases or
promotion of health”

     Diabetes –
Garlic, momordica

     Cancer – Flax seeds, green tea

     Immunomodulator –

Classification of Nutraceuticals

Ø  Inorganic
mineral supplements

Ø  Vitamin

Ø  Digestive

Ø  Probiotics

Ø  Prebiotics

Ø  Dietary

Ø  Health

Ø  Antioxidants


Ø  Herbs
as functional foods

Inorganic mineral supplements:

Ø   Large number of elements control variety
of physiological and biochemical functions of human body

Ø  Most
of the minerals are provided through diet, Deficiency of minerals in food may
lead to various diseases

Eg: Calcium – Imp in the treatment of bone loss and
prevention, sufficient intake of Ca post menopause significantly reduce the
risk of bone fracture

– bone formation and cartilage


Vitamin supplement:

Ø   Necessary for maintenance of human life in
small quantities

Ø  Vit
B complex – Specific vitamin B recommended for to combat high levels of homocysteine

Ø  Niacinamide  deficiency – Neurological and skin problems

Ø  Vitamin
C – Anti oxidant, Necessary for proper maintenance for bones

Digestive enzymes:

Ø   Use to help absorb and digest food material

Ø  Pepsin
of digestive juice – Digestive aid for proteins

Ø  Amylase
– Digest carbohydrates

Ø  Pancrilipase
– Breakdown of fat in small intestine

Ø  Papain
and bromelain – In digestive disorders


Ø   Describing as a living organisms

Ø  When
ingested with or without food improves the intestinal microbial balance and
consequently the health and functioning of large intestine

Ø  Approximately
95% of bacteria found in colon of human body, some of them are useful and some
of them harmful

Ø  Natural
balance between these two play an imp role in the health and functioning of
large intestine

Eg: Bioyoghurts – Lactobacillus acidophilus reduces
the incidence of vaginal infections Bifido bacteria found in yoghurt prevent
young children suffering from diarrhoea


Ø   Food components that escape digestion by
normal human digestive enzymes and reach the colon after passage through the
stomach and small intestine

Ø   selectively promote the growth of probiotics

Eg: Fructo oligosaccharide used in food supplements
encourage the growth of Bifido bacteria already present in the gut

Dietary fibres: Necessary for our body to function

Water insoluble fibre:

Ø   Absorbs water to certain extent

Ø  Mainly
contributes to bulking of stool

Ø  Allows
quick passage of wastes

Eg : Whole grain cereals, wheat, fruits and vegetables

Water soluble fibre:

Ø   Get dissolved in a water and forms a gel that
binds the stool

Ø  Slows
down the absorption of glucose and reduce the cholesterol levels

Eg : Oats, legumes, fruits and vegetables

Health drinks:

Ø   Health drinks are incorporated with
antioxidants, Vit A, C and E and herbal extracts

Eg : Tropicana fruit juice fortified with Calcium provide
365 mg/250 ml


Ø   Deficiency of antioxidants leads to variety of
diseases like diabetes, cardiac diseases, arthritis etc

True antioxidants:

Ø   React with free radicals and block the chain
reaction of free radicals

Antioxidant synergists:

Ø   Very low antioxidant potential, but enhance
the effect of true antioxidants by reacting with heavy metals which catalyse
the auto oxidation


Ø   Vitamin C 
– Citrus fruits

Ø  Lycopene
– Tomato

Ø  β-carotene
– Carrot, sweet potato

Ø  Rutin
– Buck wheat, eucalyptus

Ø  Quercetin
– Onion, apple, black grapes

Ø  Betalaines
– Beet root

Poly unsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)

Ø   Human body is capable of synthesizing most
of the fatty acids except two major Poly unsaturated fatty acids omega-3-fatty
acid and omega -6-fatty acid

Ø  These
are precursors for arachidonic acid and docosohexanoic acid (DHA)

Ø  These
acids found to regulate Blood pressure, heart rate, blood clotting etc

Ø  Essential
for the development of foetus and also during first 6 months after birth

Ø  Breast
milk is a rich source for DHA

Herbs as functional foods: Various herbs used in prevention
of disease

Eg: Garlic, spirulina, momordica, flax seed, tomato,
turmeric, Ginkago biloba etc

Market and growth of Nutraceuticals

Ø  Internationally nutraceuticals are
gaining importance and are becoming a part of the consumers daily diet

Ø   Major reasons for this changes are the
increasing occurrence of life style diseases and people intentionally
taking  preventive health care measures

Ø  Developed markets like USA and
Europe are discovering the unexploited segment of modified products based on
health claims

Ø  In 2010, the Indian nutraceuticals
industry was estimated at $ 2 billion, roughly 1.5% of the global
nutraceuticals industry

Ø  The total Indian nutraceuticals
market was approximately $ 5 billion  in

Ø   Global market size is expected to reach $ 300
billion by 2022

Ø   Nutraceutical 
has spectacular annual  growth
rate of 25% in indian health care market

Ø   Nutraceutical 
market is predicted to record revenue of USD 671 billion by 2024

Health benefits of nutraceuticals in Diabetes

may offer many benefits to our health like

Ø   Increases the health value of our diet

Ø   Help us to live longer

Ø   Help us to stay away from particular medicinal

Ø   May be supposed to be more natural medicine
than traditional medicine and do not produce unpleasant side effects

Vitamin C:

Ø   It is a chain breaking antioxidant and
prevents the propagation of chain reactions

Ø   Vitamin C (800 mg/day) replenishes the Vitamin
C levels in patients with type II Diabetes mellitus

Ø   Low Vitamin C level impair insulin resistance


Ø   High calcium intake acts as  protective to develop diabetes

Ø   it acts by suppressing secretion of Para
Thyroid Harmone (PTH) and help to preserve insulin sensitivity

Vitamin E

Ø   Essential fat soluble vitamin and acts mainly
as an anti-oxidant

Ø  Low
levels of vitamin E produces increased frequency of diabetes

Ø  Doses
of vitamin E up to 400 IU are generally safe to use


Ø   High fat diet can damage glucose
tolerance and promote obesity and these abnormalities can be improved by
reducing saturated fat intake. Mono saturated fat such as olive and peanut oils
have low glycemic index


Ø   Foods rich in fibres like fruits,
vegetables  and whole cereals provede
protective effects against chronic diseases and in lipid and glycemic

Ø   An intake of 26 g and 38 g is recommended for
women and men respectively


Ø  Chromium supplements may increase
glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in patients with Type II Diabetes mellitus


Ø  Magnesium rich diets significantly
improves  the insulin sensitivity
(Adiposite insulin sensitivity)

Lipoic acid:

Ø  Naturally occurring antioxidant
involve in chelation of heavy metals and regeneration of other antioxidants
such as glutathione, vitamine C and E.

Ø  Protects the injury to the retina
which leads to visual loss (Diabetic retinopathy)


Ø  Acts similar to insulin in
transporting glucose in to the cells and useful in both type I and  type II Diabetes mellitus

Ø   45 – 150 mg/day useful in decreasing fasting
blood glucose levels


Ø  Stimulates insulin secretion but
excessive intake should be avoided as it may lead to diabetic nephropathy

Ø   Vegetable protein is preferred over animal
protein as it is better for reducing serum cholesterol and in the management of

Ø  Soya, rice, egg, milk products etc

Health benefits of nutraceuticals in CVD

Ø  Majority of the cardio vascular
diseases can be prevented and controlled

Ø  Low intake of vegetables and fruits
is connected with a high mortality  in

Ø  Nutraceuticals in the form of anti-oxidants,
dietary fibres, PUFA, vitamins and minerals recommended for prevention and
treatment of CVD


Ø  Plant sterols are known as

Ø   Present in plants – Fruits, vegetables, nuts
and cereals

Ø   Inhibit intestinal absorption of cholesterol,
but do not affect HDL and VLDL. Form micelle with bile salts, thus improve
serum lipid profile and decrease the risk of CVD


Ø  Include flavonoids, phenolic acids
and stilbenes, found in fruits, vegetables, cereals, beverages

Ø   Exert anti athero-sceroticeffects in the
initial stages of atherosclerosis development and increase nitric oxide
release, which acts as a potent vasodilator and protects against myocardial


Ø  Present in vegetables, fruits,
beverages like cocoa, tea and wine

Ø  Flavonoids exert their effect on
heart due to their antioxidant activity

Ø   Inhibits platelet aggregation and loweroxide
superoxide production

and Soy nutrients:

Ø  Spirulina is a rich source of
proteins, vitamins, minerals, carotenoids

Ø   Spirulina supplementation alters the blood
lipid profile

Ø   Soy products are rich in PUFA, fibre, vitamins
and minerals, have low saturated fat content


Ø  Curcumin prevents cardiac
hypertrophy and heart failure

Ø  Decreases serum lipid peroxides and
total serum cholesterol

Ø   Reduces chronic inflammation induced by
obesity and improves their vascular function

Omega 3-
fatty acid:

Ø  Decrease inflammation and platelet
aggregation, cause vasodilation and improve myocardial function

Ø  Most commonly used for primary and
secondary CVD


and lycopene:

Ø  Lycopene is a carotenoid  present in red fruits and vegetables like
papayas, tomato, watermelon, red pepper etc

Ø   Lycopene reduces myocardial infarction and
angina pectoris

Ø  Most powerful anti-oxidant and plays
imp role in preventing CVD


Ø  Garlic is composed of sulphur
compounds, proteins and amino acids

Ø   It contains allicin (diallyl thiosufinate) has
potent anti-platelet activity

Ø  Inhibits platelet aggregation,  enhances vasodilation and fibrinolysis

Health benefits of nutraceuticals in Cancer

Ø  Fibre content in fruits and
vegetables may reduce the risk of cancer

Ø   Plant derivative polysaccharides act as
protective role in development  of cancer

Ø  Dietary supplements such as
microalgae, plant derivatives and vegetables are a rich source of vitamins,
minerals, amino acids and other micro nutrients

Ø  Adequate utilization of  dietary nutraceuticals is a sensible way to
maintain health and avoid the formation of cancer


Ø  Chest nut extract possesses
antioxidant activity and is protective against gastric cancer

Ø   Mild protective effect against prostate and
breast cancer


Ø  Blue, black and strawberries are
good source of antioxidants and phenolic compounds

Ø   These berries act as chemo protective against
breast cancer

Ø   Exerts anti-cancer effect by inhibiting growth
of cancer cells by which activities of proteins involved in the oncogenesis
gets interrupted in their path way


Ø  Soy contains iso flavones, which
reduce the risk of breast cancer particularly in postmenopausal women

Ø   Intake of high amount of soy reduced the risk
of colorectal cancer


Ø  Garlic is composed of sulphur
compounds, proteins and amino acids

Ø   Diallyl trisulphide prevents the development
of prostate cancer and lung cancer

Ø   Acts by inhibiting the expression of androgen
receptor which is actively involved in the development of prostate cancer

Ø   Garlic oil effective against liver cancer



Ø  Green tea contains polyphenols which
prevent the advancement of cancer

Ø   Protects the bladder against cell death,
antioxidant potency of green tea reduces the oxidative stress induced by
hydrogen peroxide in malignant/normal bladder cells


Ø  Effective in the prevention of skin
cancer (UV rays induced) and   decreases
risk of squamous cell carcinoma as it contains polyphenols and proanthocyanidin

Ø   It also inhibit blood cancer and prostate
cancer when taken as supplements

and Red pepper:

Ø  Tomato contain lycopene ( carotenoid
) is a potent antioxidant , which is chemo-protective against prostrate, breast
and lung cancer

Ø   Lycopene reduces myocardial infarction and
angina pectoris

Ø  Capsiacin an active component of
pepper inhibits the migration of skin cancer cells to other body parts


Ø  These fibres prevents constipation
by increasing bulk of stool and hence reduces the risk of colorectal cancer

Ø   Also reduce the risk of breast cancer in
postmenopausal women

Ø   Broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower,  sprouts contain dietary fibres

Health benefits of nutraceuticals in irritable bowel and GID


Ø  Derived from rhizomes of Curcuma
longa, Zingiberaceae

Ø   Used both in Ayurveda and Chinese medicine,
especially in abdominal pain and bloating

Ø  Curcumin has anti-inflammatory
activity and reduces mucosal injuries and useful in peptic ulcer


Ø  Garlic is composed of sulphur
compounds, proteins and amino acids

Ø   Garlic oil prevents ethanol induced gastric
injury and this protective effect has been recognized for its anti-oxidant


Ø  Contains  potential anthroquinones, salicylates,
lupeol, acemannan

Ø   Acemanan prevents stress induced gastric

Ø   Stimulates the collagen synthesis, thus
increases the ulcer healing process


Ø  Ripe/half ripe fruits of Aegle
marmelos, Rutaceae

Ø   Luvangetin, a pyranocoumarin isolated from the
seeds has been shown to protect gastric mucosa in gastric ulceration


Ø  It has capacity to stimulate tissue
growth, enhance re- epithelization and minimize scar formation

Ø   Effective against gastric ulcers induced by
acetyl salicylic acid

Ø   Inhibits the growth of H Pylori responsible
for gastritis, peptic ulcer


Ø  Fat soluble vitamins A and D have
protective role in irritable bowel syndrome

Ø   Vitamin D deficiency produces mucosal


Ø   Describing as a living organisms

Ø  When
ingested with or without food improves the intestinal microbial balance and
consequently the health and functioning of large intestine

Ø  Approximately
95% of bacteria found in colon of human body, some of them are useful and some
of them harmful

Ø  Natural
balance between these two play an imp role in the health and functioning of
large intestine

Ø  Probiotics
available in the form of tablets, capsules, powders and food form

Eg: Bifido bacteria found in yoghurt prevent young
children suffering from diarrhoea

Alfa Alfa

Leaves, seeds
and stems of the plant Medicago sativa

Family:  Fabaceae

Alfa Alfa
is one of the most nutrient rich plants known as father of foods


– B1, B6 and C

Calcium, zinc and

Phytoestrogens: Alfalfa coumestrol, genistein,
Triterpenoid saponins, amino acid – L-Canavanine,


Healthy skin:

Ø  Alfa Alfa chlorophyll is rich in
vitamin A and enzymes. Vit A helps to maintain and construct a healthy and
glowing skin, helps to cure dry skin

Healthy hair:

Ø  Rich
in Vitamin B1, B6 and Vit C and minerals, 
essential for proper growth and health of hair, used to treat baldness
and prevent of hair loss

Ø  Rich
in proteins- helps in healthy hair

Helps in
elimination of bad cholesterol and control the level, thereby decreasing the
risk of heart diseases

Digestive problems: 
Gastritis, stomach ulcers, bloating, and nausea can be prevented.
Alfa sprouts are also used in treating chronic constipation due to its high
fibre content

Prevents the risk of cancer as it contains an amino acid known as

UTI: It has diuretic property, which prevents
disorders of kidney like water retention and prevents developing of UTI

: Alfalfa
coumestrol, genistein, bio canine counter the symptoms of menopause. As a part
of diet, fight vaginal dryness, postmenopausal osteoporesis

Diuretic nature of
alfa alfa keeps the increased sugar levels under control

  Being rich in fibres and proteins, helps those
who are on weight loss regime

Depression: Alfa alfa known to have tranquillizing
and sedating effect on nervous system. It is also known to be quite effective
in solving insomnia and other sleep disorders


Leaves, flowers & Roots of Cichorium intybus

Family:  Asteraceae


– A, B6, C, E and K

Zinc, magnesium,
manganese, calcium, iron


chemicals –
oligo fructose, coumarins, flavanoids, tannins, alkaloids and sesquiterpene


Digestion: Good for digestion as it contains
inulin, which is a powerful prebiotic. It is effective against acid reflux,
heart burn as it reduces the acidity

Cardiac diseases: Inulin reduces the level of bad
cholesterol, which is main cause for atherosclerosis and high blood pressure,
also contributes for heart attack and stroke

Ø  As
it is low calorie vegetable acts as anti arrythemic agent

Reduces tumor
growth in various type of cancers, due to the presence of various fructans
which have anti-oxidant properties

Arthritis:  used
in the treatment of arthritis as it has anti-inflammatory properties and
reduces the pain in conditions like osteoarthritis

Weight loss: 
Chicory is an excellent source of oligo fructose and inulin, which helps
in the management of weight by promoting weight loss. These help in the
regulation of ghrelin, an amino acid mainly connected with feelings of hunger.

Constipation: Inulin is a natural fibre and helps in
bowel movements and peristaltic motions as well as secretion of gastric juices.
As a result digestion is improved and constipation is reduced

: Powerful
booster for immune system, it has anti-bacterial effects and act as immune
system booster. Various phyto chemicals present in it acts as antioxidants and
improves immunity

has sedative effects, which reduce anxiety and soothe the mind, thereby relieve

  Root extract has diuretic effect which
increaser urine volume. Frequent urination helps to eliminate toxins stored in
liver and kidney, thus prevent the dangerous condition that occur when toxins
are allowed to remain in the body


Dried leaves
and seeds of Trigonella foenum graecum

Family:  Fabaceae


– Riboflavin,
thiamine, niacin, Vit C

Zinc, calcium,
iron, Phosphorous

Proteins, 58% Carbohydrates, 25% dietary fibre

chemicals –
sapogenin and diosgenin

                                   AlkaloidsTrigo coumarin,

                                    Saponins –


Ø  To enhance milk production in new

Ø   Fenugreek seeds commonly used as a supplement
to control blood glucose level, especially to prevent or treat diabetes

Ø   To enhance libido in both men and women

Ø   Used to treat skin inflammation as it has anti-inflammatory
and anti-oxidant activities

Ø   To reduce appetite , menustrual cramps and fever,
to balance cholesterol,  to smooth muscle


Roots of Panax

Family:  Araliaceae


– Niacin and

Iron, manganese,
zinc, Copper 

chemicals –
saponins – Gensenosides or Panaxosides, triterpens of dammarane and oleanane


Root of
ginseng Improves the mental performance in people with alzheimer”s disease

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary disease: Improves lung
function and, many symptoms of COPD

Mental function: Ginseng improves abstract thinking,
mental arithmetic skills in healthy middle aged people. In combination with
ginkgo leaf extract improves memory

sexual function in men with erectile dysfunction and also helps to prevent
premature ejaculation

Flu: Reduces the risk of getting cold or flu by
improving immunity

Diabetes: Help to lower blood sugar by stimulating
the production of insulin in pancreas

Increases energy: Stimulates the physical and mental
activity in people who weak and tired


Honey is
viscous, sugary secretion obtained from honey comb of Apis mellifera and
Apis dorsata

Family: Apidae

       Bees produce honey from nectar of
flowers by enzymatic activity

       Honey is collected from honey comb,
either from wild bee colonies or from hives of domesticated bees.


Ø  Honey is composed of carbohydrates-
fructose, glucose and sucrose, proteins, vitamins, amino acids, minerals and
organic acids

Ø  Pure honey also contains flavonoids,
polyphenols, reducing compounds, alkaloids, glycosides, anthraquinones and
volatile compounds

benefits of Honey

Ø  Wound healing activity: Has antibacterial, antiviral,
anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity. Activates immune response to infection

Ø  Anti-Diabetic: Honey reduces blood lipids,
homocysteine and c-reactive protein contents

Ø  Anti-cancer effects: Honey modifies immune responses,
prevent cell proliferation, induces apoptosis, antimutagenic etc 

Ø  Cardiovascular diseases: (Flavonoids, polyphenolics, vitC and
monophenolics) Improves coronary vasodilation, reduces the ability of platelets
in blood to clot and inhibits low density lipoproteins from oxidizing.

Ø  Neurological diseases: (Polyphenols) Prevents memory
disorders and induce memory production at the molecular level.

Ø  Gastrointestinal diseases: Exerts antibacterial activity
against Helicobacter pylori, also treats gastroenteritis.


fruits of Emblica officinalis /Phyllanthus emblica

Family: Rutaceae

       Amla is a subtropical plant, is
small or medium sized tree, fruits are fleshy.


       Vitamins – Amla is a rich source of vit C (760mg/100g)

       Minerals – Zinc, copper, Chromium

       Amino acids – Alanine, lysine, proline, aspartic

       Phyto constituents: Phyllemblin and curcuminoides

benefits of Amla

Ø  Immunity booster

Ø  Treats respiratory disorders

Ø  Manages diabetes

Ø  Remedy for heart disorder

Ø  Cures eye disorder

Ø  Prevents aging

Ø  Cures anaemia

Ø  Enhances food absorption

Ø  Helps urinary system

Ø  Good for skin

Ø  Promotes healthier hair

Ø  Remedy for Scurvy


: Dried
leaves, roots and stem bases of Withania somnifera

Family: Solanaceae

       Short perennial shrub



Withanolides- which include withaferin-A, alkaloids, steroidal lactones,
tropine and cuscohygrine

benefits of Ashwagandha

Ø  Reduces blood sugar levels

Ø  Anti-cancer properties

Ø  Reduces cortisol levels

Ø  Boosts testosterone and increase
fertility in men

Ø  Increase muscle mass and strength

Ø  Reduces inflammation

Ø  Lowers cholesterol and triglycerides

Ø  Improve brain function and memory



Ø  Nutraceuticals
– Nutritional value as well as health benefits

Ø  Classification
Inorganic mineral supplements, Vitamin supplements Digestive enzymes,
Probiotics, Prebiotics, Dietary fibres, Health drinks

Ø  Antioxidants,
Poly unsaturated fatty acids, Herbs as functional foods


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