Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry I B. Pharma 4th Semester Notes Pdf
Scope: The subject involves the fundamentals of Pharmacognosy like scope, classification of crude drugs, their identification and evaluation, phytochemicals present in them, and their medicinal properties.
Objectives: Upon completion of the course, the student shall be able
1. To know the techniques in the cultivation and production of crude drugs
2. To know the crude drugs, their uses, and their chemical nature
3. Know the evaluation techniques for the herbal drugs
4. To carry out the microscopic and morphological evaluation of crude drugs
Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry UNIT-I
Introduction to Pharmacognosy:
(a) Definition, history, scope, and development of Pharmacognosy
(b) Sources of Drugs – Plants, Animals, Marine & Tissue culture
(c) Organized drugs, unorganized drugs (dried latex, dried juices, dried extracts, gums, mucilages, oleoresins, and oleo-gum-resins).
Classification of drugs:
Alphabetical, morphological, taxonomical, chemical, pharmacological, chemo, and sero taxonomical classification of drugs
Quality control of Drugs of Natural Origin:
Adulteration of drugs of natural origin. Evaluation by organoleptic, microscopic, physical, chemical, and biological methods and properties.
Quantitative microscopy of crude drugs including lycopodium spore method, leaf constants, camera lucida, and diagrams of microscopic objects to scale with camera lucida.
Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry UNIT-II
Cultivation, Collection, Processing, and Storage of Drugs of natural origin: Cultivation and Collection of Drugs of natural origin
Factors influencing cultivation of medicinal plants. Plant hormones and their applications.
Polyploidy, mutation, and hybridization with reference to medicinal plants
Conservation of medicinal plants
Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry UNIT-III
Plant tissue culture:
Historical development of plant tissue culture, types of cultures, Nutritional requirements, growth, and their maintenance.
Applications of plant tissue culture in pharmacognosy. Edible vaccines
Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry UNIT IV
Pharmacognosy in various systems of medicine:
Role of Pharmacognosy in allopathy and traditional systems of medicine namely, Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha, Homeopathy, and Chinese systems of medicine.
Introduction to secondary metabolites:
Definition, classification, properties, and test for identification of Alkaloids, Glycosides,
Flavonoids, Tannins, Volatile oil, and Resins
Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry UNIT V
Study of biological source, chemical nature, and uses of drugs of natural origin containing the following drugs Plant Products:
Fibers – Cotton, Jute, Hemp
Hallucinogens, Teratogens, Natural allergens
Primary metabolites: General introduction, detailed study with respect to chemistry, sources, preparation, evaluation, preservation, storage, therapeutic use, and commercial utility as Pharmaceutical Aids and/or Medicines for the following Primary metabolites:
Carbohydrates: Acacia, Agar, Tragacanth, Honey
Proteins and Enzymes: Gelatin, casein, proteolytic enzymes (Papain, bromelain, serratiopeptidase, urokinase, streptokinase, pepsin).
Lipids (Waxes, fats, fixed oils): Castor oil, Chaulmoogra oil, Wool Fat, Bees Wax
Marine Drugs: Novel medicinal agents from marine sources
Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry I (Practical)
1. Analysis of crude drugs by chemical tests: (i)Tragaccanth (ii) Acacia (iii)Agar (iv) Gelatin (v) starch (vi) Honey (vii) Castor oil
2. Determination of stomatal number and index
3. Determination of vein islet number, vein islet termination, and palisade ratio.
4. Determination of the size of starch grains, and calcium oxalate crystals by eyepiece micrometer
5. Determination of Fiber length and width
6. Determination of the number of starch grains by the Lycopodium spore method
7. Determination of Ash value
8. Determination of Extractive values of crude drugs
9. Determination of moisture content of crude drugs
10. Determination of swelling index and foaming
Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry Recommended Books: (Latest Editions)
1. W.C.Evans, Trease and Evans Pharmacognosy, 16th edition, W.B. Sounders & Co., London, 2009.
2. Tyler, V.E., Brady, L.R. and Robbers, J.E., Pharmacognosy, 9th Edn., Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia, 1988.
3. Text Book of Pharmacognosy by T.E. Wallis
4. Mohammad Ali. Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, CBS Publishers & Distribution, New Delhi.
5. Textbook of Pharmacognosy by C.K. Kokate, Purohit, Gokhale (2007), 37th Edition, Nirali Prakashan, New Delhi.
6. Herbal drug industry by R.D. Choudhary (1996), Ist Edn, Eastern Publisher, New Delhi.
7. Essentials of Pharmacognosy, Dr.SH.Ansari, IInd edition, Birla publications, New Delhi, 2007
8. Practical Pharmacognosy: C.K. Kokate, Purohit, Gokhale
9. Anatomy of Crude Drugs by M.A. Iyengar