Pharmacology I – B. Pharma 4th Semester Notes Pdf

PHARMACOLOGY I – B. Pharma 4th Semester Notes Pdf Free Download

Pharmacology B. Pharma 4th Semester Notes Pdf

Scope: The main purpose of the subject pharmacology is to understand what drugs do to living organisms and how their effects can be applied to therapeutics. The subject covers information about the drugs like the mechanism of action, physiological and biochemical effects (pharmacodynamics) as well as absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (pharmacokinetics) along with the adverse effects, clinical uses, interactions, doses, contraindications and routes of administration of different classes of drugs.

Objectives: Upon completion of this course the student should be able to

1.  Understand the pharmacological actions of different categories of drugs

2.  Explain the mechanism of drug action at organ system/sub-cellular/macromolecular levels.

3.  Apply basic pharmacological knowledge in the prevention and treatment of various diseases.

4.  Observe the effect of drugs on animals by simulated experiments

5.  Appreciate the correlation of pharmacology with other bio-medical sciences

Course Content:


1. General Pharmacology

a. Introduction to Pharmacology- Definition, historical landmarks and scope of pharmacology, nature, and source of drugs, essential drugs concept and routes of drug administration, Agonists, antagonists( competitive and non-competitive), spare receptors, addiction, tolerance, dependence, tachyphylaxis, idiosyncrasy, allergy.

b. Pharmacokinetics- Membrane transport, absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of drugs. Enzyme induction, enzyme inhibition, kinetics of elimination


General Pharmacology

a. Pharmacodynamics- Principles and mechanisms of drug action. Receptor theories and classification of receptors, regulation of receptors. drug receptors interactions signal transduction mechanisms, G-protein–coupled receptors, ion channel receptors, transmembrane enzyme-linked receptors, transmembrane JAK-STAT binding receptors and receptors that regulate transcription factors, dose-response relationship, therapeutic index, combined effects of drugs and factors modifying drug action.

b. Adverse drug reactions.

c. Drug interactions (pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic)

d. Drug discovery and clinical evaluation of new drugs –Drug discovery phase, preclinical evaluation phase, clinical trial phase, phases of clinical trials, and pharmacovigilance.


2. Pharmacology of drugs acting on the peripheral nervous system

a. Organization and function of ANS.

b.Neurohumoral transmission,co-transmission, and classification of neurotransmitters.

c. Parasympathomimetics, Parasympatholytics, Sympathomimetics, sympatholytics.

d. Neuromuscular blocking agents and skeletal muscle relaxants (peripheral).

e. Local anesthetic agents.

f. Drugs used in myasthenia gravis and glaucoma


3. Pharmacology of drugs acting on the central nervous system

a. Neurohumoral transmission in the C.N.S. with special emphasis on the importance of various neurotransmitters like GABA, Glutamate, Glycine, serotonin, and dopamine.

b. General anesthetics and pre-anesthetics.

c. Sedatives, hypnotics, and centrally acting muscle relaxants. d. Anti-epileptics

e. Alcohols and disulfiram


3. Pharmacology of drugs acting on the central nervous system

a. Psychopharmacological agents: Antipsychotics, antidepressants, anti-anxiety agents, anti-manics, and hallucinogens.

b. Drugs used in Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease.

c. CNS stimulants and nootropics.

d. Opioid analgesics and antagonists

e. Drug addiction, drug abuse, tolerance, and dependence.

PHARMACOLOGY I – B. Pharma 4th Semester Notes Pdf Free Download

General Pharmacology Short Notes:

– Pharmacology is the study of the drug in which we study how drugs interact with living organisms to produce therapeutic effects on their body.

– It involves the study of drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion, as well as their mechanisms of action and therapeutic uses.

– Pharmacokinetics deals with the time course of drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion in the body.

– Pharmacodynamics focuses on the interactions between drugs and their molecular targets, leading to physiological and therapeutic effects.

Drugs Acting on the Peripheral Nervous System:

– PNS consists of nerves and ganglia, and the spinal cord.

– Drugs acting on the PNS can have various effects, such as stimulating or blocking nerve impulses.

– Cholinergic drugs, such as acetylcholine and cholinesterase inhibitors, enhance the activity of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, leading to increased nerve impulse transmission.

– Adrenergic drugs, such as epinephrine and beta-adrenergic antagonists, affect the activity of the neurotransmitters norepinephrine and epinephrine, influencing functions like heart rate, blood pressure, and smooth muscle contraction.

Drugs Acting on the Central Nervous System:

– CNS consists of the brain and spinal cord.

– Drugs acting on the CNS can have diverse effects on mood, perception, cognition, and behavior.

– Sedatives and hypnotics, such as benzodiazepines and barbiturates, depress the CNS to induce relaxation, sleep, or anesthesia.

– Analgesics, including opioids and non-opioid drugs, alleviate pain by acting on receptors in the CNS.

– Antidepressants and antipsychotics modify neurotransmitter activity to treat mood disorders and psychosis.

– Stimulants, like amphetamines and methylphenidate, increase CNS activity to enhance alertness and attention.

BP 408 P.PHARMACOLOGY-I (Practical)

1. Introduction to experimental pharmacology.

2. Commonly used instruments in experimental pharmacology.

3. Study of common laboratory animals.

4. Maintenance of laboratory animals as per CPCSEA guidelines.

5. Common laboratory techniques.  Blood withdrawal, serum, and plasma separation, anesthetics, and euthanasia are used for animal studies.

6. Study of different routes of drug administration in mice/rats.

7. Study of the effect of hepatic microsomal enzyme inducers on the phenobarbitone sleeping time in mice.

8. Effect of drugs on ciliary motility of frog esophagus

9. Effect of drugs on rabbit eye.

10. Effects of skeletal muscle relaxants using rota-rod apparatus.

11. Effect of drugs on locomotor activity using actophotometer.

12. Anticonvulsant effect of drugs by MES and PTZ method.

13. Study of stereotype and anti-catatonic activity of drugs on rats/mice.

14. Study of anxiolytic activity of drugs using rats/mice.

15. Study of local anesthetics by different methods

Note: All laboratory techniques and animal experiments are demonstrated by simulated experiments by software and videos

Recommended Books (Latest Editions)

1. Rang H. P., Dale M. M., Ritter J. M., Flower R. J., Rang, and Dale’s Pharmacology, Churchill Livingstone Elsevier

2. Katzung B. G., Masters S. B., Trevor A. J., Basic and clinical pharmacology, Tata Mc Graw-Hill

3. Goodman and Gilman’s, The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics

4. Marry Anne K. K., Lloyd Yee Y., Brian K. A., Robbin L.C., Joseph G. B., Wayne A. K., Bradley R.W., Applied Therapeutics, The Clinical use of Drugs, The Point Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

5. Mycek M.J, Gelnet S.B and Perper M.M. Lippincott’s Illustrated Reviews- Pharmacology

6. K.D.Tripathi. Essentials of Medical Pharmacology, JAYPEE Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd, New Delhi.

7. Sharma H. L., Sharma K. K., Principles of Pharmacology, Paras medical publisher

8. Modern Pharmacology with Clinical Applications, by Charles R.Craig& Robert,

9. Ghosh MN. Fundamentals of Experimental Pharmacology.  Hilton & Company, Kolkata.

10. Kulkarni SK. Handbook of experimental pharmacology. VallabhPrakashan,

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