Physical Pharmaceutics II – B. Pharma 4th Semester Notes Pdf

Physical Pharmaceutics II – B. Pharma 4th Semester Notes Pdf

Physical Pharmaceutics B. Pharma 4th Semester Notes Pdf

Scope: Physical Pharmaceutics deals with the various physical and physicochemical properties and principles involved in dosage forms/formulations. Theory and practical components of the subject help the student to get a better insight into various areas of formulation research and development, and stability studies of pharmaceutical dosage forms.

physical pharmaceutics notes pdf

Objectives: Upon the completion of the physical pharmaceutics 2 course student shall be able to

1. Understand various physicochemical properties of drug molecules in designing the dosage forms

2. Know the principles of chemical kinetics & use them for stability testing and determination of the expiry date of formulations

3. Demonstrate the use of physicochemical properties in the formulation development and evaluation of dosage forms.

Course Content:

Physical Pharmaceutics II – UNIT-I

Colloidal dispersions: Classification of dispersed systems & their general characteristics, size & shapes of colloidal particles, classification of colloids & comparative account of their general properties. Optical, kinetic & electrical properties. Effect of electrolytes, coacervation, peptization& protective action.

Physical Pharmaceutics II – UNIT-II

Rheology: Newtonian systems, the law of flow, kinematic viscosity, the effect of temperature, non-Newtonian systems, pseudoplastic, dilatant, plastic, thixotropy, thixotropy in formulation, determination of viscosity, capillary, falling Sphere, rotational viscometers

Deformation of solids: Plastic and elastic deformation, Heckel equation, Stress, Strain, Elastic Modulus

Physical Pharmaceutics II – UNIT-III

Coarse dispersion: Suspension, interfacial properties of suspended particles, settling in suspensions, formulation of flocculated and deflocculated suspensions. Emulsions and theories of emulsification, microemulsion, and multiple emulsions; Stability of emulsions, preservation of emulsions, rheological properties of emulsions, and emulsion formulation by HLB method.

Physical Pharmaceutics II – UNIT-IV

Micromeretics: Particle size and distribution, mean particle size, number and weight distribution, particle number, methods for determining particle size by different methods, counting and separation method, particle shape, specific surface, methods for determining surface area, permeability, adsorption, derived properties of powders, porosity, packing arrangement, densities, bulkiness & flow properties.

Physical Pharmaceutics II – UNIT-V

Drug stability: Reaction kinetics: zero, pseudo-zero, first & second order, units of basic rate constants, determination of reaction order. Physical and chemical factors influencing the chemical degradation of pharmaceutical products: temperature, solvent, ionic strength, dielectric constant, specific & general acid-base catalysis, and Simple numerical problems. Stabilization of medicinal agents against common reactions like hydrolysis & oxidation. Accelerated stability testing in expiration dating of pharmaceutical dosage forms. Photolytic degradation and its prevention

Physical Pharmaceutics 4th Semester Notes Pdf

Physical Pharmaceutics Short Notes:

Colloidal Dispersions:

Colloidal dispersions are systems in which finely divided particles or droplets are dispersed in a continuous medium.

The dispersed phase consists of particles ranging in size from 1 to 500 nanometers.

Examples of colloidal dispersions include emulsions (liquid dispersed in a liquid), suspensions (solid dispersed in a liquid), and aerosols (liquid or solid dispersed in gas).


Rheology is the study of the flow and deformation of materials, particularly liquids, and semisolids.

In pharmaceuticals, rheology is important for understanding the flow properties of formulations, such as creams, gels, and ointments.

Rheological measurements help in predicting and optimizing the behavior of formulations during manufacturing, packaging, and administration.

Deformation of Solids:

Deformation of solids refers to the ability of solid materials to change their shape under the influence of external forces.

In pharmaceuticals, understanding the deformation behavior of materials is crucial for processes like tablet compression, coating, and granulation.

Factors such as elasticity, plasticity, and brittleness influence the deformability of solid dosage forms.

Coarse Dispersion:

Coarse dispersions involve larger particles that are dispersed in a continuous medium.

Examples of coarse dispersions in pharmaceuticals include suspensions, which consist of solid particles dispersed in a liquid medium.

Coarse dispersions are commonly used for oral suspensions, injectables, and topical formulations.


Micromeretics is the science and technology of small particle systems, particularly powders.

It deals with the study of particle size, surface area, and particle size distribution.

Micromeretic properties influence the flow, packing, and dissolution characteristics of powders, which are important in the development of solid dosage forms.

Drug Stability:

Drug stability refers to the ability of a pharmaceutical product to maintain its physical, chemical, and therapeutic properties over time.

Factors such as temperature, humidity, light, and pH can affect the stability of drugs.

Stability studies are conducted to assess the shelf life of formulations and ensure that they retain their quality and efficacy throughout their intended use.


1. Determination of particle size, and particle size distribution using the sieving method

2. Determination of particle size, and particle size distribution using the Microscopic method

3. Determination of bulk density, true density, and porosity

4. Determine the angle of repose and the influence of lubricant on the angle of repose

5. Determination of viscosity of liquid using Ostwald’s viscometer

6. Determination of sedimentation volume with the effect of different suspending agent

7. Determination of sedimentation volume with the effect of different concentrations of a single suspending agent

8. Determination of viscosity of semisolid by using Brookfield viscometer

9. Determination of reaction rate constant first order.

10. Determination of reaction rate constant second order

11. Accelerated stability studies

Recommended Books: (Latest Editions)

1. Physical Pharmacy by Alfred Martin, Sixth edition

2. Experimental pharmaceutics by Eugene, Parott.

3. Tutorial pharmacy by Cooper and Gunn.

4. Stocklosam J. Pharmaceutical calculations, Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia.

5. Liberman H.A, Lachman C., Pharmaceutical Dosage forms, Tablets, Volume-1 to 3, Marcel Dekkar Inc.

6. Liberman H.A, Lachman C, Pharmaceutical dosage forms. Disperse systems, volumes 1, 2, 3. Marcel Dekkar Inc.

7. Physical Pharmaceutics by Ramasamy C, and Manavalan R.

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