Organic Farming

Organic Farming


At the
end of this lecture, student will be able to

       Discuss the objectives of organic

Organic Farming

       Organic farming is a method of crop
production with an objective not to use pesticides, fertilizers, genetically
modified organisms, antibiotics and growth hormones

       The principal goal of organic
production is to develop enterprises that are sustainable and in agreement with
the environment

       organic farming system depend upon
crop rotations, use of crop residues, animal manures, legumes, green manures,
off farm organic wastes, bio fertilizers, mineral bearing rocks, biological
control to maintain soil productivity and to supply plant nutrients and to
control insect, weeds and other pests

       Use of excessive chemical
fertilizers and toxic pesticides polluted the land and water deeply. This leads
to severe environmental penalty like loss of topsoil, decrease in soil
fertility, surface and ground water contamination and loss of genetic diversity

       Organic farming is a production
management system that promotes and improves agro-ecosystem health like
biodiversity, biological cycles, and soil biological activity. Organic farming
methods produce even higher yields than conventional methods

of organic farming

Ø    To protect the environment, decrease soil
degradation and erosion, decrease pollution, optimize biological productivity
and promote a sound state of health

Ø   To maintain long-term soil fertility by
optimizing conditions for biological activity within the soil

Ø   To maintain biological diversity within the

Ø   To recycle materials and resources to the
greatest extent possible within the project

Ø  To provide considerate care that
promotes health and meets the behavioural needs of livestock

Ø  To prepare organic products by
careful processing, and handling methods in order to maintain the organic
integrity and vital qualities of the products at all stages of production

Ø  To depend upon renewable resources
in locally organised agricultural systems

of organic farming

farming provides many benefits like:-

Ø  Provides better nutrition: organic food is rich in nutrients.
Organic farming increases the nutrients of the soil which is passed on to the
plants and animals

Ø  Helps us to stay healthy: organic foods do not contain any
chemical as organic farmers don’t use chemicals at any stage of the
food-growing. Organic farmers use natural farming techniques which do not harm
humans and environment

Ø  Free of poison: organic farmers do not make use of poisonous
chemicals like pesticides and weedicides. As organic farming avoids these
toxins, it reduces the chances of sickness and diseases

Ø  Lower prices: organic foods are cheaper as they
don’t use application of expensive pesticides, insecticides, and weedicides

Ø  Improved taste: organic food tastes better than
other food. The sugar content in organically grown fruits and vegetables
provide them extra taste

Ø  Organic farming methods are

organic farming does not utilize harsh chemicals so; the environment including
plant life, animals, and humans remain protected

Ø  Longer shelf-life: organic plants have greater
metabolic and structural reliability in their cellular structure than
conventional crops. This enables storage of organic food for a longer time

farming includes:-

       Fertilizers :

       Organic farming does not use
synthetic fertilizers and in order to build and maintain a rich, living soil
addition of organic matter is done. This includes the application of manure,
compost and animal by-products like feather meal or blood meal

        The USDA National Organic Standards direct
that raw manure must be applied no later than 90 or 120 days before harvest,
depending on whether the harvested part of the crop is in contact with the

       Compost adds organic matter to the
soil and provides a wide range of nutrients for plants, and adds helpful
microbes to the soil. These nutrients are mostly in an un-mineralized form
which cannot be taken up by plants, soil microbes and it is required to break
down organic matter into mineralized form

       Soil is maintained by planting and
then ploughing in cover crops, which help to protect the soil from erosion and
provide additional organic matter. The ploughing of nitrogen-fixing cover crops
adds nitrogen to the soil. Cover crops are commonly planted before or after the
main crop season or with crop rotation


       Organic pesticides are generally
used in organic farming and are derived from naturally occurring sources

       These include living organisms like
Bacillus Thuringiensis, which is used to control caterpillar or plant
derivatives like pyrethrins (from the dried flower heads of Chrysanthemum
cinerariifolium) or neem oil (from the seeds of Azadirachta indica)

       Mineral-based inorganic pesticides
like sulphur and copper are also used

       Along with the use of
bio-pesticides, organic pest control utilizes biological, genetical control
method to decrease pest damage.

        Biological control uses the natural enemies of

       For example certain wraps to attack
insect pests

       Method of traditional plant breeding
has produced numerous crop varieties that are resistant to particular pests

       Soil:  Health of the soil maintained by adding manure, or compost and other
organic material in place of synthetic fertilizers. Biological fertilizers like
compost release the nutrients slowly, increase the capacity to retain the
moisture and reduce the leaching of nitrates into ground water

       Crop rotation: Organic farmers do not grow the same
crop on the same field year after year. Crop rotation naturally reloads the
soil as different plants provide different nutrients to the soil. It also
disrupts the habitats of insect pests and weeds and helps to control them

       Cover crops:  Cover crops like clover, rye, and wheat are planted between growing
seasons which help to refill the soil with nutrients and prevents soil erosion.
They also control weeds by suffocating and shading by them



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