Monophasic Liquid Dosage Forms – Pharmaceutics – I B. Pharma 1st Semester

Monophasic Liquid Dosage Forms

Monophasic-Liquid-Dosage-Forms

Learning Objectives

At the end of this lecture, student will be able to

• Classify liquid dosage forms with examples

• Explain the formulation of monophasic liquid dosage forms

• Suggest suitable techniques for increasing solubility of a poorly water soluble drug

• List out monophasic liquid dosage forms used internally

• Define various dosage forms

• Differentiate syrups and elixirs

• Explain the formulation of syrups, elixirs and linctuses

• List out the labelling details

• Give examples of monophasic liquid dosage for internal use

• List out monophasic liquid dosage forms used externally

• List out monophasic liquid dosage forms used in the oral cavity

• Define various liquid dosage forms

• Differentiate gargles and mouthwashes

• Differentiate liniments and lotions

• List out the auxiliary labelling instructions

• Give examples of monophasic liquid dosage used externally and in the oral cavity

• List out monophasic liquid dosage forms used in body cavities

• Define various liquid dosage forms used in body cavities

• Differentiate douches and enemas

• List out types of enemas

• Explain the method of usage of douches and enemas

• List out the auxiliary labelling instructions

• Give examples of monophasic liquid dosage used in body cavities

Liquid Dosage Forms

– Monophasic Liquid Dosage Forms (single phase)

– Biphasic Liquid Dosage Forms (two phases)

Monophasic Liquid Dosage Forms – Solutions

Solute + Solvent à Completely soluble

Advantages

1.  Uniformity of dosage is ascertained

2.  Faster absorption leading to quick onset of action

3.  Pleasing appearance leading to enhanced patient compliance

Disadvantages

1. They are less stable than solid dosage form

2. Unpleasant flavors can be difficult to mask

3. Solution is bulky to carry

4. Need of a dropper or measuring device to administer the dose

5. Accidental breakage leads to total loss of contents

Classification of Monophasic Liquid Dosage Forms

1. Internal                                             

2. External                                           

3. Parenteral (Sterile dosage forms)

Internal: Syrup, Elixir, Simple mixture, Draught, Paediatric drops, Linctus              

External

Topical use: Liniments, Lotions, Collodions

Used in oral cavity: Gargles, Mouthwashes, Throat paints, Mouth sprays, Throat sprays

Instilled into body cavity: Douches, Enemas, Irrigation solutions, Ear drops, Nasal drops, Nasal sprays

Parenteral (Sterile dosage forms)

Formulation Considerations

Methods of increasing solubility

1. Co-solvency

2. pH adjustment

3. Use of surfactants/ Solubilization

4.  Complexation

5.  Hydrotropy

6.  Chemical modification of drug

1. Co -Solvency

• Co-solvents are used to increase solubility

E.g. of co-solvents are ethanol, sorbitol, glycerin, propylene glycol and PEG

2. pH Adjustment

• Alteration in pH

E.g Buffer systems such as ammonium chloride, diethanolamine, carbonic acid, phosphate buffers, glutamic acid, tartaric acid, citric acid buffer, acetic acid buffer etc.

3. Solubilization/Use of Surfactants

• Surface active agents

• Surfactants are used

• They have 2 portions

• Head- Polar portion

• Tail- Non- polar portion

• Polar portion is hydrophillic

• Non polar portion is hydrophobic

• When added to water at low concentrations

• Orient at the air-liquid interface

• Additional surfactant is added- the interface becomes fully occupied

• The excess molecules are faced into the bulk of the liquid

• Higher concentrations, the surfactant molecules in the bulk of the liquid – form oriented aggregates or micelles

• The concentration at which micelles from – Critical Micelle Concentration / CMC

• Water solubility of the solute increases with the concentration of the micelles

E.g. Tweens, Spans, SLS etc.

To solubilize oil soluble drugs

To solubilize oil soluble drugs

Preparations made by this technique:

1. Cresol with soap solution

2. Solubilization of oil soluble vitamins like A, D, E and K

4. Complexation

• Solubility is increased by complexing with a complexing agent.

• Insoluble compound + Complexing agent = Complex

• Complex has good solubility in water

Preparations made by this technique:

Aqueous Iodine Solution: Iodine + KI = Poly iodide complex

• Polyiodide complex has good solubility in water

5. Hydrotropy

• Increase in solubility of a drug in water in the presence of large amounts of additives

• Weak interaction between the hydrotropic agent and the solute

E.g of hydrotropic agents are sodium benzoate, urea, sodium acetate, PVP, sodium salicylate etc.

Preparations made by this technique:

1. Increase in solubility of caffeine by adding Sodium Benzoate

2. Increase in solubility of theophylline by adding Sodium Salicylate

6. Chemical modification of the drug

• Enhances the solubility of poorly water soluble drugs

• Modifying them into their water soluble derivatives/ Salt forms E.g. Disodium phosphate ester of betamethasone- Solubility in water is 1000 times greater than its parent compound

Formulation

1.  Drug: Therapeutically active ingredient

2. Vehicles/ Solvents: Aqueous or non- aqueous

– To solubilize the ingredients

E.g. Purified water, Alcohol, Hydroalcoholic mixture, Propylene Glycol, Glycerine, Oils

3. Viscosity enhancers – To increase viscosity E.g. Methyl cellulose, SCMC, HPC, HPMC

4. Buffers: To prevent change in pH E.g. Citrate buffer, Acetate buffer, Phosphate buffer

5. Stabilizers: To protect against oxidation and microbial contamination

– Can be Preservatives and Anti- oxidants

– Preservatives prevent microbial contamination

E.g. Methyl paraben, Propyl paraben, Benzoic acid

– Anti-oxidants prevent oxidation

E.g Ascorbic acid, Tocopherol, BHA, BHT

6. Organoleptic additives- to impart taste, colour and aroma to the preparation

– Sweetening agents

– Flavouring agents

– Colouring agents

– Perfumes

ORGANOLEPTIC ADDITIVES

    Stimulation of sense organs

1. Tongue- Taste – Sweetening & Flavouring agents

2. Eyes- Sight – Colouring agents

3. Nose- Smell – Perfumes

1)   Sweetening agents:

– Imparts sweetness E.g. Sucrose, Sorbitol,

2) Flavouring agents: Increases palatability and easy administration

-The four basic taste sensations are salty, bitter, sweet and sour

Taste sensation

Recommended flavor

Salty

Butterscotch, maple, apricot, peach, vanilla, mint.

Bitter

Wild cherry, walnut, chocolate, mint combinations, anise

Sweet

Fruit and berry, vanilla

Sour

Citrus flavors, liquorice, raspberry

 

3) Colouring agents:

– Enhances aesthetic appeal

  FD &C approved colours only

  Should complement flavour

E.g. Amaranth, Tartrazine, Erythrosine

4) Perfumes:

-Imparts an aroma to the preparation

– Used only for External preparations

E.g. Jasmine oil, Lavender oil, Ylang- Ylang, Sandalwood oil

Monophasic Liquid Dosage Form – Internal use

1. Syrups

• Syrups are sweet, viscous, concentrated, aqueous preparations of sugar or sugar substitutes

• With or without flavoring agents and medicinal substances.

• Flavoured Syrups- contain flavoring agents

E.g. Cherry syrup, Cocoa syrup.

• Medicated syrups- contain medicinal agents

E.g. Chlorpheniramine Maleate syrup.

Formulation of Syrups

1. Drug (if it is medicated)

2. Vehicle- purified water

3. Sugar/ sugar substitute

4. Flavours

5. Colours

6. Preservatives

E.g. Simple syrup, Orange syrup, Ephedrine hydrochloride syrup

Simple syrup I.P

• Contains 66.7% w/w sucrose.

• At this concentration the syrup:

– has high osmotic pressusre

– Self preservative

– Resistant to microbial growth

• Below 66.7 %: microbial contamination

• Above 66.7 %: crystallization

• Crystallization

• Prevention of crystallization

Preparation of Syrups

1. Simple solution – with the aid of heat or by agitation without the use of heat. E.g. Simple /Orange syrup

2. Extraction process- E.g lemon syrup

3. Chemical reaction- E.g Ferrous Phosphate syrup

2. Elixirs

• These are clear, pleasantly flavored

• Pleasantly coloured

• Hydro-alcoholic preparations

• Potent substances like antibiotics, antihistamines, and sedatives.

• Alcohol concentration is usually 10-40%.

• Less viscous

Formulation of Elixirs

1. Drug

2. Vehicle – Hydroalcoholic mixture

3. Sugar/ sugar substitute

4. Viscosity enhancers

5. Organoleptic additives

6. Stabilizers

E.g. Paediatric Paracetamol elixir, Piperazine citrate elixir

3. Linctus

• They are viscous liquid oral preparations Prescribed for relief of dry cough.

• They contain medicaments which have demulcent, sedative or expectorant action.

• Taken in small doses, sipped and swallowed slowly without diluting with water

Formulation of Linctuses

1. Drug 

2. Vehicle- syrup

3. Viscosity enhancers

4. Organoleptic additives

5. Stabilizers

E.g. Simple linctus, Codeine linctus

4. Paediatric Drops

• They are liquid dosage forms.

• For paediatric patients

• Administration –with a dropper.

• Dropper is graduated

E.g. Phenylephrine and Chlorpheniramine paediatric drops

5. Draught

• Preparations taken as a single dose

• Administered in doses of 10 ml

• Maximum volume dispensed is 50 ml in divided doses in
separate bottle)

i.e 10ml x 10ml x 10 ml x 10ml x10ml = 50 ml

E.g. Paraldeyde draught

6. Mixtures

• Aqueous preparations – Solution or suspension.

• Manufactured on a small scale

• Doses- multiples of 5 ml

• Extemporaneous preparations

• Shelf life is less

• Used for acute conditions- diarrhoea, constipation, cough,
indigestion

Monophasic Liquid Dosage Form – Used in the Mouth

1. Mouthwashes

• Aqueous solutions

• Cleanse and deodorize the buccal cavity

• Refreshing in nature

• Concentrated or dilute form

• Maintains oral hygiene.

• They have a pleasant taste and odour.

Formulation

Antibacterial agents

Astringents

Alcohol

Glycerin

Sweetening agents

Flavouring agents

Coloring agents

Containers: Clear fluted bottles

E.g: Compound Sodium chloride mouthwash

The label should clearly indicate the proper directions for diluting the mouth wash before use.

Auxiliary Labelling:

“FOR EXTERNAL USE ONLY”

“NOT TO BE TAKEN”

“NOT TO BE SWALLOWED IN LARGE QUANTITIES”.

“FOR DENTAL USE ONLY”

2. Gargles

• Aqueous solutions

• Treatment of throat infections

• Relieve soreness

• Contain antiseptics/ astringents

• Diluted with warm water before use.

• Vehicle – Glycerin (viscosity, sweetness, demulcent)

• Contact time between throat and gargle is more

Formulation

Antibacterial agents/ Astringents

Astringents

Alcohol

Glycerin

Sweetening agents

Flavouring agents

Coloring agents

Containers: clear fluted bottles / amber coloured bottles

E.g: Potassium chlorate gargle

The label should clearly indicate the proper directions for diluting the gargle before use

AUXILIARY LABELLING:

“FOR EXTERNAL USE ONLY”

“NOT TO BE TAKEN”

“NOT TO BE SWALLOWED IN LARGE QUANTITIES”

“FOR DENTAL USE ONLY”

3. Throat Paints

• Viscous liquid preparations

• In the treatment of pharyngitis, laryngitis and follicular tonsillitis.

• Vehicle is Glycerin

Formulation

1. Drug- antiseptics, astringents and anti-infectives

2. Vehicles- Glycerin

3. Flavoring agents

4. Coloring agents

5. Sweetening agents

CONTAINER: Colored fluted containers

E.g. Mandl’s Paint (Compound Iodine Paint)

Direction:

Throat paints are applied on to the affected area with the help of a brush or cotton swab and they are applied as such without dilution.

Auxiliary Labelling:

 “FOR EXTERNAL USE ONLY”

“APPLY WITH A BRUSH”

“NOT TO BE SWALLOWED IN LARGE QUANTITIES”

4. Throat Sprays

• Aqueous or non- aqueous

• Sprayed into the throat Medication of the upper and lower respiratory tract

E.g. Adrenaline and Atropine spray

Monophasic Liquid Dosage Form – External use

1. Liniments

• Alcoholic or oleaginous solutions/ emulsions

• To be rubbed on the skin Rubefacient, counter irritant in action Alcoholic liniments- better penetration

E.g. Soap liniment

Oleaginous liniments- massaging

E.g Camphor liniment

Direction:

To be applied with friction

Auxiliary Labelling:

“FOR EXTERNAL USE ONLY”

“NOT TO BE APPLIED ON CUT AND BROKEN SKIN”

“INFLAMMABLE” (If alcohol is used)

2. Lotions

• Liquid dosage forms

• External use

• Can be applied on broken skin

• Soothing in nature

• Need not be applied with friction

• Vehicle: Glycerin or Alcohol

E.g. Body lotion

Container: Colored fluted bottles

Auxiliary Labelling:

“FOR EXTERNAL USE ONLY”

3. Collodions

Non- aqueous liquid preparations

External application to the skin.

For small cuts and abrasions.

Vehicle is volatile – evaporates on application to skin

A flexible, protective film is left at the site of application.

Applied with a fine brush or rod.

Two types

– Flexible and non

– Flexible collodion

Formulation

• Film forming agent – Pyroxylin (nitrocellulose)

• Solvent: Ether- alcohol.

• Flexibility imparter: Castor oil

• Adhesion- Colophony

• Water proofing- Camphor

E.g. Salicylic acid collodion

Auxiliary Labelling:

 “FOR EXTERNAL USE
ONLY”

 “STORE IN A COOL PLACE”

“HIGHLY INFLAMMABLE- KEEP AWAY FROM NAKED FLAME”

Monophasic Liquid Dosage Foam – Used in Body Cavities

1. Douches

• Medicated solutions

• Rinsing body cavities such as nose, vagina or urinary bladder.

• Douches for vagina: VAGINAL DOUCHE

• For urinary bladder: IRRIGATIONS

• For nose: NASAL DOUCHE

Nasal-Douches

NASAL DOUCHE

Formulation

• Drug (Antiseptic, Anti-microbial, Astringent)

• Aqueous isotonic vehicle (Purified water)

• Viscosity modifiers

• Buffers 

Vaginal-Douche

Vaginal Douche

Irrigations

Irrigations

Irrigations & Vaginal douches- sterile in nature

E.g. Potassium Permanganate vaginal douche

Auxiliary Labelling

FOR VAGINAL DOUCHES:

• “FOR VAGINAL USE ONLY”

• “KEEP OUT OF REACH OF CHILDREN”

• “NOT FOR CONTRACEPTIVE USE”

• STOP USE AND ASK A DOCTOR IF RASH OR IRRITATION DEVELOPS

• DISCONTINUE USE IF ANY BURNING, ITCHING OR IRRITATION OF THE VAGINA OCCURS DURING USE

2. Enemas

•Aqueous or oily solutions or suspensions

• Introduction into the rectum

• Cleansing, Therapeutic or diagnostic purposes

• Purgative, sedative, anthelmintic and anti-inflammatory effects.

• X-ray examination of the lower bowel.

E.g Barium sulphate enema

enema

Actions of Enemas

• Cleansing enemas: in constipation or before an operation

• Therapeutic enemas: to administer Purgative, sedative, anthelmintic and anti-inflammatory drugs

• Diagnostic enemas: X-ray examination of the lower bowel. 

E.g Barium sulphate enema

• Based on Cleansing, therapeutic and diagnostic actions, there are 2 types:

1. Evacuation enemas

2. Retention enemas

Auxiliary Labelling:

• “FOR RECTAL USE ONLY”
 

• “SHAKE WELL BEFORE USE” (IF IT IS A SUSPENSION)

3. Nasal Drops

• Are aqueous solutions

• Instilled into the nose with a dropper.

• Antiseptic, local analgesic and nasal decongestant property

• Glass bottles with a dropper or plastic squeeze bottles

• E.g. Oxymetazoline nasal drops (Nasivion) and Otrivin.

Formulation

• Drug (Antiseptic, local analgesic and nasal decongestant)

• Aqueous isotonic vehicle (Purified water)

•Stabilizers (Preservatives)

Auxiliary Labelling:

• “FOR EXTERNAL USE ONLY” or “FOR NASAL USE ONLY”

• “KEEP OUT OF REACH OF CHILDREN”

• “CLOSE THE BOTTLE TIGHTLY AFTER USE”

• “DO NOT USE IF THE SEAL IS MISSING OR BROKEN”

4. Nasal spray

• Are aqueous solutions

• Sprayed into the nose with a dropper.

• Antiseptic, local analgesic and nasal decongestant property

• Plastic squeeze bottles

Auxiliary Labelling:

• “FOR EXTERNAL USE ONLY” or “FOR NASAL USE ONLY”

• “KEEP OUT OF REACH OF CHILDREN”

• “CLOSE THE BOTTLE TIGHTLY AFTER USE”

• “DO NOT USE IF THE SEAL IS MISSING OR BROKEN”

5. Ear Drops

• Are aqueous solutions

• Instilled into ear

• Used for treating mild infections, softening wax or cleansing after infections.

• Glass bottles with a dropper or plastic squeeze bottles

• E.g. Ciprofloxacin ear drops

Formulation

• Drug 

• Vehicle- Purified water/Propylene Glycol

• Stabilizers (Preservatives)

• Viscosity Modifiers

Auxiliary Labelling:

• “FOR OTIC USE ONLY”

• “NOT FOR OPTHALMIC USE”

• “KEEP OUT OF REACH OF CHILDREN”

Monophasic Liquid Dosage Forms Summary

1.   Monophasic Liquid Dosage Forms– One phase systems/ solutions

2.   Biphasic preparations – Two phase systems

3.   Monophasic Liquid Dosage Forms are classified into

– Internal use

– External use: Topical application, Used in the oral cavity, used in body cavities

4. Methods of increasing solubility of drugs

– Cosolvency: Use of co- solvents

– Complexation: Use of complexing agents

– Micellar solubilization: Use of Surfactants

– Hydrotropy: Use of additives

– Chemical modification of drug: using salt forms of drugs

5. Formulation of solutions

a. Drug: Therapeutically active ingredient

b. Vehicle: Solubilize the ingredients and can be aqueous or non- aqueous

c. Viscosity enhancers: Increases viscosity

d. Buffers: Prevents change in pH

e. Stabilizers:

Anti-oxidants: Prevents oxidation

Preservatives:  Prevents microbial contamination

f. Organoleptic additives:

– Colouring agents: Enhances aesthetic appeal

– Flavouring agents: Increases palatibility

– Sweetening agents: Imparts sweetness

6. Monophasic Liquid Dosage Forms used internally:

– Syrups: Sweet, viscous, concentrated preparations of sugar

– Elixirs: Clear, sweetened, flavoured, hydroalcoholic preparations

– Linctus: Sweet, viscous preparations used for dry cough

– Pediatric drops: Liquids for administration to children with dropper

– Draught: Single dose preparations

– Mixtures: Small volume, extemporaneous, preparations

7. Monophasic Liquid Dosage Forms used in the oral cavity:

– Gargles: Aqueous preparations for treatment of throat infections

– Mouthwash: Aqueous preparations for cleaning and deodorizing buccal cavity

– Throat paints: Viscous preparations used in the treatment of throat infections and painted inside throat

– Throat sprays: Sprayed into throat

8. Monophasic Liquid Dosage Forms used externally:

– Liniments: Applied on unbroken skin with friction

– Lotions: Can be applied without friction on broken skin, for soothing action

– Collodions: Non- aqueous preparations used for cuts and abrasions and which leave flexible film on skin

9. Monophasic LDF used in body cavities:

– Douches: Medicated solutions used for washing body cavities like vagina & nose

– Enemas: Aqueous or Oily solutions used in the rectum for cleansing, therapeutic or diagnostic purposes

– Eye drops: Aqueous solutions instilled into the eye

– Ear drops: Aqueous solutions instilled into the ear

– Nasal drops: Aqueous solutions instilled into the nose

FAQ:

1. What are monophasic liquid dosage forms?

Monophasic liquid dosage forms refer to pharmaceutical medications that remain in a single, uniform phase throughout their shelf life. This means the active ingredients and excipients are evenly distributed in a liquid medium, ensuring stability and ease of administration.

2. How do monophasic liquid dosage forms differ from other liquid medications?

Monophasic liquids maintain a uniform composition, while other liquid medications, like suspensions, may have solid particles that need to be mixed before use. This uniformity ensures consistent dosing and stability.

3. What are the advantages of using monophasic liquid dosage forms?

Monophasic liquids offer rapid absorption, precise dosing flexibility, and ease of administration, making them suitable for various patient populations, including children and the elderly.

4. What are some common applications of monophasic liquid dosage forms in healthcare?

Monophasic liquid dosage forms are commonly used for liquid antibiotics, cough syrups, and oral rehydration solutions. These forms are especially valuable for patients who have difficulty swallowing pills.

5. How can I ensure the safety and quality of monophasic liquid medications?

Proper storage, quality control measures, and compliance with pharmaceutical regulations are essential for ensuring the safety and efficacy of monophasic liquid dosage forms. Manufacturers conduct stability testing and microbiological analysis to assess the quality and shelf life of these medications.

Also, Visit:

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