Natural Allergens and Harmful effects of Teratogens

Natural Allergens

Content

• Natural Allergens

• Harmful effects of Teratogens

Objective

At the end of this lecture, student will be able to

• Explain the various natural allergens

• Discuss the harmful effects of Teratogens

Allergens

• Allergens are inciting agents of allergy

• Substances capable of sensitizing the body in such a way
that an unusual response occurs, in hypersensitive person

• It may be of biologic, chemical, or of synthetic origin

• The substance such as pollens, dander’s, dust etc.  as natural allergens

• Allergens are protein or glycoprotein

TYPES OF
ALLERGENS

• Inhalant allergens

• Ingestant allergens

• Injectant allergens

• Contactant allergens

• Infectant allergens

INHALANT
ALLERGENS

• Inhalant allergens are air borne substances as chemicals,
causing respiratory disease, inflammation in nose and lungs

• Inhalant allergies caused by environmental factors such as
pollen, pets, house dust mites and moulds

• Inflammation in nose & lungs may cause Hay fever &
Asthma

Symptoms

• Sneezing

• Lacrimation

• Coughing and post nasal drip

• Itching eyes, nose and throat.

• Allergic shiner

• Allergic salute

• Watering eyes, conjunctivitis

INGESTANT
ALLERGENS

• Allergens which are present in food stuff and swallowed
are termed ingestant (food allergy)

• A food allergy is an immune system response to a food

• When foods are digested and the nutrients are absorbed,
substances in the food (ingestant allergens) stimulate allergic response. These
reactions cause a number of allergic symptoms

• Some most common food allergens ingested by patients are
milk, egg, peanut, tree nut, fish, shellfish, soy, wheat, orange juice, cod
liver oils, etc

SYMPTOMS

• Food allergens ordinarily cause GIT symptoms, but they may
also cause skin rash

• Puffed lips and tongue

• Migraine

• Rhinitis

• Bronchial asthma

• Severe cases of eczema of hands

INJECTANT
ALLERGENS

• The injectants (injectable preparations and insects) cause
allergy in hypersensitive   person,   allergic  
conditions   is   known  
injectants allergy

Symptoms

• Itching of the palms of hands and soles of feet, Erythema,
Peeling of skin etc

• The  natural  sources of injectable allergens are produced
by the sting of bees, hornets and wasps

• Penicillin 
products,  liver  extract, 
antitoxins  and  the 
glandular products

CONTACTANT
ALLERGENS

• Any allergens they produce manifestation of
hypersensitivity at the site of skin or other mucous

• Aeroallergens, 
such  as  the 
various  pollen  grains 
containing  oils, trichomes  from 
various  leaves,  flowers 
and  small  fragments 
of plants tissue carried by smoke originating from brush fires, grass
fires and burning leaves are also cause for contact allergens

• A Number of plants products used as additives in cosmetics
and perfumes are irritants and cause skin allergy to some hypersensitive
individuals

• Wool fat in cosmetics, soap and soap powders, plain
detergents and enzyme detergents, nail polishes, hair dye and hair spray are
also included among the major cause of contact dermatitis

INFECTANT
ALLERGENS

• Allergy caused by the metabolic product of living
microorganism in the human body

• The continual presence of certain types of bacteria,
protozoa’s, molds, helminths and other parasites in the body of human being are
responsible for chronic infection

• In such patient bacterial metabolic waste are considered
to be infectant allergens

Natural
Allergens

• Large number of plant and animals – give rise to allergic
reactions in certain individuals

• The allergenic material is transmitted by direct skin
contact, by airborne pollens, smoke and dried plant particles and on the coats
of domestic animals

• Once a person has been sensitized to a particular allergen,
subsequent exposure will result in antigen-antibody reaction – results in liberation
of histamine or histamine like compounds

• Allergies – fever, asthma and dermatitis

• Treatment – desensitization – allergenic extracts –
available   -as prophylactic and diagnostic
treatments

• Fatal anaphylactic reactions – possible – desensitization using
allergenic extracts should be carried out in situation where full cardio
respiratory resuscitation facilities are available

Allergens

1. Pollens

• Cause hay fever – lead to chronic asthma

• Pollen count of atmosphere – recorded – grass pollen form
the highest counted – constitute 62 %

• Common grass – timothy (Phletum pratensis), cockfoot (Dactylis
glomerata and Rye (Lolium perenne)

• Pollen of nettle – second – in air throughout summer

• Plantago spp, rag weeds (Ambrosia spp)

• Tree pollens – spring

2. Spores

• Number of common moulds produce spores – rhinitis and asthma
in sensitive individuals

• Beginning of frost – mould grow in damp conditions where
organic decays are progressing – peak sporulation – hot and dry climate

• In UK Cladosporium herbarum and Sporobolomyces roseus –
cause most trouble

• Lycopodium spores – allergic – dermatitis to severe asthma
attacks

Rhus

• Rhus radicus (poison ivy), R. toxicodendron (poison oak),
R. diversiloba (Pacific poison oak) – allergens – plant sap – transmitted

– on clothing, hands, animal fur) – severe dermatitis
associated with watery blisters which burst and quickly spread through the skin

• Allergens – urushiol – alkenyl polyphenols

Sesquiterpene
lactones

• Compositae

• Parthenin – Parthenium hysterophorus – aggressive weed

• Fever few, chrysanthemums

• Ruta graveolens

Teratogens

• Teratogenic substances – ingested by the mother – cause abnormalities
in the developing foetus

• Alkaloids, coumarins, lignans, macrolides, nitriles,
terpenoids, toxic amino acids

Summary

• The allergenic material is transmitted by direct skin
contact, by airborne pollens, smoke and dried plant particles and on the coats
of domestic animals

• Once a person has been sensitized to a particular allergen,
subsequent exposure will result in antigen-antibody reaction – results in
liberation of histamine or histamine like compounds

• Allergies – fever, asthma and dermatitis

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