Nutrition, Definition and Classification Short Notes
Humans need a wide range of nutrients to lead a healthy and active life. The required nutrients for different physiological groups can only be derived from a well-balanced diet.
Definition of Nutraceutical:
The word Nutraceutical, derived from “nutrition” and “pharmaceutical”, is a food or food product that reportedly provides health and medical benefits, including the prevention and treatment of disease.
Classification of nutraceuticals:
There are multiple different types of products, that may fall under the category of nutraceuticals.
• Vitamins, minerals, co-enzyme Q, carnitine
• Gingsing, Gingko Biloba, Saint John’s Wort, Saw Palmetto
• Oats, bran, psyllium and lignin’s for heart disease and colon cancer
• Prebiotics – oligofructose for control of intestinal flora
• Omega-3 milk in prevention of heart disease
• Canola oil with lowered triglycerides for cholesterol reduction
• Stanols (Benecol) in reduction of cholesterol adsorption
• Medically valuable compounds produced from modified agricultural crops or animals through biotechnology.
• Transgenic cows and lactoferrin for immune enhancement
• Transgenic plants for oral vaccination against infectious diseases
• Health bars with added medications
The body needs energy for maintaining various metabolic activity and for supporting physical work and growth.
In infants and children the energy allowances recommended are designed to provide enough energy to promote satisfactory growth and to maintain good health.
The factors which influence energy needs are age, body size, physical activity and, in the same extent, climate and altered physiological status such as pregnancy and lactation.
The unit of energy, which has been in use in nutrition, is Kilocalories (Kcal).