Vitamin, Minerals, Electrolyte and there uses, deficiency and Sources

Vitamin, Minerals, Electrolyte and there uses, deficiency and Sources
Vitamin is an organic molecule that is essential micronutrient which organism need in small quantities for the proper functioning of it’s metabolism. Vitamins and minerals are not just essential to health but to life. You need them to stay alive and to be healthy. 
There are two main groups of vitamins:
1. Fat-soluble vitamins
2. Water-soluble vitamins
Fat-Soluble Vitamins 

These are stored in the fatty tissues of your body and in your liver. They are vitamins A, E, D, and K. Because you can store these vitamins, you don’t need to get them every day. Getting too much fat-soluble vitamins could cause them to build up to toxic amounts.
Vitamin A (Beta-carotene, Retinol)

Vitamin A comes in two forms, retinol or retinal and carotenes or carotenoids. Retinol is found in animal foods while carotenes are from plant foods. Both forms are fat-soluble.
Uses: Vitamin A is especially essential for healthy eyes, bones, teeth, skin, hair, health of epithelial cells, growth, healing and repair, protection against infection, and a healthy reproductive system.
Deficiency: A deficiency of Vitamin A can cause night blindness and eventual total blindness, lack of tear secretion, rough dry skin, slow growth, (unhealthy) weight loss, and poor bone growth.
Food sources: Good food sources for retinol include liver, milk, eggs, butter, cheese, fish and meat. Foods rich in carotenes include spinach, kale, broccoli, apricots, fresh asparagus, leaf lettuce, pumpkin, sweet potatoes, carrots, pumpkin, tomatoes and watermelons.
Vitamin D (Calciferol)

Vitamin D also known as Calciferol, which help in absorption of Calcium. You can get vitamin D by simply going outside in the sun, also called the sunshine vitamin.
Uses: essential for strong bones. Vitamin D is also essential for normal growth and development, and regulation of some hormones.
Deficiency: Fatigue, Bone pain, Muscle weakness, muscle aches, or muscle cramps, Mood changes, like depression.

Food sources: Fortified milk, fish-liver oils, eggs, herring, mackerel, sardines, tuna, sunflower seeds, and salmon.
Vitamin E (Tocopherol)

Vitamin E is an important antioxidant: it protects you against free radicals that damage cells and tissues. 
Uses: Vitamin E acts as an antioxidant to protect cells and tissues against damage, which could lead to degenerative diseases such as heart disease and cancer. It also helps boost immunity in older adults.
Deficiency: Though rare, deficiency in vitamin E can cause irritability, fluid retention, anemia, lethargy and loss of balance.
Food sources: Foods high in vitamin E include nuts and seeds, safflower oil, sunflower oil, olive oil, corn oil, canola oil, soybean oil, mango, wheat-germ and wheat-germ oil, avocado, asparugus, apples, fortified cereals, and corn among others.
Vitamin K (Phytonadione)
Vitamin K is essential for making your blood clot when you are injured, vitamin K comes in three forms, 
K1 also known as Phylloquinone, often found in plant foods. 
K2 also known as menaquinone, a friendly bacteria found in the intestines.
 K3 also known as menadione, which is an artificial form.
Uses: Vitamin K is essential to normal blood clotting. It is also important in promoting bone health.
Deficiency: Deficiency in adults is rare and usually limited to those with liver or food absorption disorders. In adults, deficiency can lead to prolonged clotting time, easy bleeding, nosebleeds, blood in urine and easy bruising. In infants, it can lead to hemorrhagic disease of the newborn and failure to develop normally.
Food sources: Good food sources of vitamin K include beef liver, spinach, kale, broccoli, cabbage, Brussels sprouts, cheddar cheese, turnip greens, alfalfa, and cauliflower among others. 
Water-soluble Vitamins
These get dissolved in water and can’t be stored in the body for very long and any extra is passed out of your body. These need to be replenished regularly. Water-soluble vitamins are also more easily lost in cooking and processing. Vitamin C and all the B vitamins fall in this group.
The B Vitamin Family (B Complex)
Vitamin B is a complex is complex of eight water-soluble vitamins. 
Vitamin B1 (Thiamin)

Vitamin B1 is the first vitamin to be discovered, also known as thiamin is important for nervous system function. Thiamin is also important for mental function, especially memory as well as learning capacity in children.
Uses:Maintains normal functions of the nervous system, muscles and heart; helps convert food into energy, regulate and is important for mental functions as well as growth and development.
Deficiency: Thiamin (vitamin B1) deficiency can cause fatigue, nausea, low appetite, depression and reduced mental functioning, among other symptoms.
Food sources: Ham, dried kidney beans, oranges, orange juice, brown rice, oysters, peas, peanuts, brewers yeast, wheat germ/bran.
Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)
Vitamin B2 is responsible for giving urine its yellow-gold color.
Uses: Helps release energy from food, normal growth, hormone function, normal red blood cells; health skin, eyes, nails and hair.
Deficiency: Fatigue, cracks and sores in mouth and tongue, eyes overly sensitive to light, and depression among other symptoms. Deficiency can also lead to formation of cataract.
Food sources: Nuts and seeds, bananas, beef liver, fortified cereals, pork, tuna, eggs, dairy products.
Vitamin B3 (Niacin)

Vitamin B3, also known as niacin, is often as a natural, help to lower cholesterol levels. 
Uses: Helps lower cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood, reduces allergic reactions, and releases energy from food.
Deficiency: Fatigue, lethargy, sore mouth, irritability, weakness, anxiety, depression, dementia, diarrhea, among other symptoms.
Food sources: Beef liver, nuts and seeds, tuna, salmon, swordfish, chicken, turkey.
Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic acid)

Vitamin B5 also known Pantothenic acid, is necessary for the production of hormones and red blood cells. It also helps metabolize fat cells and carbohydrates to release energy.
Uses: Release of energy from food, production of hormones, production of red blood cells; essential for a healthy nervous system.
Deficiency: Deficiency is extremely rare except in cases of malnutrition. Symptoms include, fatigue, lethargy, delirium, headaches, dizziness, sleep disturbance, and personality changes among others.
Food sources: Beef liver, beef kidney, wheat germ and bran, peanuts, bananas, blue cheese, lobster, eggs, collard greens, oranges, chicken, peas, beans, sunflower seeds, and whole-grain products among other foods.
Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)
Vitamin B6 also known as pyridoxine is considered the most important vitamin due to its multiple life-supporting functions.
Uses: Helps in energy and mood, healthy nervous system, healthy skin and hair, healthy blood cells; needed to make proteins, hormones, and enzymes.
Deficiency: Weakness, mental confusion, insomnia, skin lesions, sore mouth; eventual anemia and depression.
Food sources: Beef liver, beef kidney, avocado, wheat germ and bran, lentils, soybeans, hazelnuts, salmon, shrimp, tuna, mackerel, bananas, peas, potatoes, raisins.
Vitamin B7 or Vitamin H (Biotin)
Vitamin B7, also known as vitamin H or biotin, is needed for a variety of body processes including breaking down of fats, proteins and carbohydrates and turning them into energy.
Uses: Release of energy from food, healthy skin and hair, promotes a healthy immune system; aids in metabolism of fatty acids, proteins and carbohydrates.
Deficiency: Hair loss, fatigue, anemia, loss of appetite, lethargy, depression, lowered immunity.
Food sources: Beef liver, peanuts, nuts and seeds, lima beans, halibut, oysters, chocolate, eggs.
Vitamin B9 (Folic acid, Folate)
Vitamin B9 also known as folic acid or folate, vitamin B9 is one vitamin of the most commonly deficient vitamin. It is especially deficient in processed foods.
Uses: Promotes healthy pregnancy and natural growth, prevents birth defects, aids in metabolism and synthesis of proteins.
Deficiency: Deficiency in folic acid has been linked to birth defects, Also weakness, irritability, and gastrointestinal disorders. 
Food Sources: Chicken liver, avocado, asparugus, beans, lentils, bananas, beets, brussels sprouts, wheat germ and bran, peas, spinach, broccolli, kidney beans, black-eyed peas, beef liver.
Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin)

Vitamin B12 also known as cobalamin, Vitamin B12 use to process carbohydrates, proteins and fats into energy. It also creates protective nerve coverings.
Uses: Promotes normal growth and development, releases energy from food, and promotes healthy nerves and cells, healthy red blood cells.
Deficiency: Fatigue, weakness, loss of appetite, loss of balance, memory loss; can lead to irreversible nerve damage.
Food sources: Beef, beef liver, beef kidney, trout, tuna, salmon, cottage cheese, oysters, eggs, flounder, sardines, herring, eggs, chicken, liverwurst, blue cheese, Swiss cheese.
Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid)
This is a nutrient of many fresh fruits and vegetables. It also easily breaks down in heating, processing and storage.
Vitamin c is one vitamin that almost does it all:
Uses: Supports collagen and cartilage growth as well as tissue strength; aids iron absorption; supports a healthy immune system; supports healthy bones, teeth and gums; aids in wounds and burns healing; aids in calcium absorption; essential for proper functioning of thyroid and adrenal gland; and is the body’s top antioxidant.
Deficiency: Can lead to scurvy; bleeding gums, lose of teeth, joint pain, depression, dry skin as well as easy bruising, weakness, fatigue, slowed healing, nose bleeds and easy bruising.
Food sources: Oranges, orange juice, papayas, blackcurrants, broccoli, collard greens, grapefruit, spinach, strawberries, raw red peppers, lemons, cantaloupe, Brussels sprouts, guavas, mangoes, among other fresh fruits and vegetables.
Essential Minerals (Macrominerals)

Vitamins need minerals to do their job, and minerals need vitamins to do theirs. The most important or essential minerals are known as macro minerals. Let’s now look at essential minerals and their roles:
Calcium (Ca)
Calcium is one of the most important of the minerals in your body, This mineral is essential to the formation of healthy, strong bones and teeth.
Uses: Healthy, bones and teeth; healthy nervous system, promotes sound sleep, healthy heart, blood clotting, muscle contraction. Also reduces muscle cramps and menstrual cramps. Vitamin D is essential for calcium absorption as well as to keep your blood level normal.
Deficiency: Nerve and bone disorders: eventual deficiency can lead to osteoporosis.
Food sources: Milk, cheese, yogurt, tofu, cottage cheese, almonds, black beans, broccoli, canned sardines, canned salmon, leafy green vegetables.
Phosphorus (P)
Phosphorous is the most abundant mineral in the body. Phosphorus too plays a major role in promoting strong bones and teeth.
Uses: Builds strong bones and teeth; helps metabolize proteins, carbohydrates, fats and DNA.
Deficiency: Bone pain, weakness, loss of appetite, speech disorders, tremors, easily broken bones.
Food sources: Whole grains, nuts and seeds, poultry, cheese, eggs, fish, milk, tuna.
Magnesium (Mg)

Magnesium the most commonly deficient mineral, magnesium is very essential to many functions.
Uses: Production and transfer of energy, aids in functions of muscles including the heart, strengthens tooth enamel.
Deficiency: Muscle contractions, skin problems, hardening of soft tissues, irritability, fatigue, hypertension.
Food sources: Nuts, beans, green leafy vegetables, molasses, avocado, cod, herring, mackerel, swordfish, flounder, dairy products.
Sulfur (S)
Sulphur is abundant element in the body and found in methionine and cysteine amino acid, which present in hair, nails and skin and help to make these tissue strong and flexible.
Uses: Aids in metabolism, production of bile acids and oxidation reduction.
Deficiency: Deficiency virtually unknown, and so are the symptoms.
Food sources: Mustard, eggs, fish, garlic, lean beef, poultry, wheat germ/bran.
Trace Minerals (Microminerals)

Trace minerals or microminerals occur in the body at much lower levels than macrominerals, but they are also extremely important.
Iron (Fe)
Iron is an extremely important mineral and is the essential for transportation of oxygen to every cell in the body.
Uses: Oxygen transportation and storage, builds resistance to disease and stress, supplementation crucial during pregnancy.
Deficiency: Weakness, fatigue, pica, and eventual anemia.
Food sources: Lean meat, whole grains, egg yolk, fish, enriched bread, lentils, liver, mussels, oysters.
Zinc (Zn)
Zinc is one of the most important, and commonly deficient in the diet. It is essential to the functioning of the immune system.
Uses: Maintains normal taste and smell, aids in healing and repair, aids immunity, energy production, hormone production, normal growth and development.
Deficiency: Loss of taste and smell, fetal abnormalities, immune deficiency, low sperm count, rashes, slow growth in children.
Food sources: Lean beef, oysters, fish, lamb, maple syrup, turkey, wheat germ and bran, soybeans, yeast, sesame seeds.
Silicon or Silica (Si)
Silicon is essential for bones, blood vessels, cartilage, tendons, skin and hair.
Uses: Essential for formation and strength of cartilage and other connective tissues, bones, arteries and skin.
Deficiency: Not known in humans, as silicon is available in many types of food.
Food sources: Silicon is abundant in many types of food. Good sources include apples, wheat, legumes, soybean, whole grains, rice, lettuce, strawberries, and cucumbers among other foods.
Iodine (I)

Linked to the formation of goiters, iodine is now a standard addition to table salt. This deficiency was due to lack of this mineral in soil some areas.
Uses: Aids in normal function of thyroid gland and normal functioning of cells.
Deficiency: Hyperthyroidism, goiter, cretinism and mental retardation, deafness in children.
Food sources: Vegetables grown in iodine-rich soil, iodized salt.
Manganese (Mn)
Manganese is an essential trace mineral. Help formation of connective tissue.
Uses: Energy production, helps in protein and carbohydrate metabolism, aids in formation of connective tissue, antioxidation.
Deficiency: Manganese deficiency is extremely rare.
Food sources: Nuts, tea, oatmeal, whole grains, carrots, wheat germ and bran, beans, blueberries, blackberries, seaweed, peas.
Molybdenum (Mo)
Molybdenum is needed to make certain enzymes. So far very little is known about this mineral.
Uses: Carbohydrates metabolism, promotes normal growth and development, iron utilization.
Deficiency: Rare and only in cases of certain disorders.
Food sources: Beef liver, beef kidney, milk, beans, whole grains, lean meat, peas, lentils.
Selenium (Se)
Selenium is essential to the formation of an enzyme called glutathione peroxidase, which protects against cell damage. It also complements vitamin E in anti-oxidation.
Uses: Healthy immune system, detoxification, protects against or helps prevent certain cancers.
Deficiency: Birth defects, cardiovascular disease, arthritis, cataracts.
Food sources: Beef liver, beef kidney, wheat germ and bran, broccoli, cabbage, garlic, milk, mushrooms, oatmeal, tuna, whole grains.
Copper (Cu)
Copper is essential for multiple body processes. Your body needs it to make many enzymes as well as to maintain healthy blood cells.
Uses: Promotes healthy bones and joints; healthy cardiovascular system, normal blood cells, assists in production of several enzymes.
Deficiency: Anaemia, connective tissue defects, loss of hair, lack of skin pigmentation.
Food sources: Beef liver, avocados, beans, peas, lentils, nuts, oats, oysters, soybeans, spinach, fish.
Chromium (Cr)
Chromium is a mineral also called an essential trace element. Because very small amount of chromium necessary for human body.
There are two type of chromium-
1 – Trivalent Chromium found in food and supplement and safe for human.
2 – Hexavalent Chromium is a known toxin that cause skin problem & lung Cancer.
Uses: Aids in glucose metabolism and transportation as well as protein synthesis.
Deficiency: Poor glucose tolerance similar to diabetes, loss of weight; disturbance in glucose, protein, and fat metabolism.
Food sources: Beef liver, brewer’s and nutritional yeast, apples, cheese, mollases, whole grains, eggs.
Electrolyte Minerals and Their Roles

Potassium, sodium and chloride are electrolytes, that is, minerals that dissolve in water and carry electrical charges. 
Potassium (K)

Potassium is a very important mineral that maintains water balance in the body and works with sodium to control blood pressure.
Uses: Healthy heart and blood vessels, muscle contraction, water balance, acid-alkali balance, nerve impulse transmission.
Deficiency: Weakness, low blood pressure, paralysis, irregular heartbeat.
Food sources: Bananas, beef, lentils, cantaloupe, carrots, asparagus, peas, potatoes, raisins, molasses, spinach, citrus fruit, avocado, beans, milk.
Sodium (Na)

If there is a mineral used in the form of sodium chloride, commonly known as table salt.
Use: Helps regulate water balance in the body, muscle contraction, nerve transmission, and acid balance.
Deficiency: Toxic effects from high intakes are greater concern. Symptoms include muscle and stomach cramps, fatigue, nausea,
Food sources: Processed meats, butter, margarine, bacon, table salt, olives, bread, butter, canned foods.
Chloride (CI)

Chlorine in the body exists in the form of chloride and is essential for the production of hydrochloric acid.
Use: Regulates acid balance, production of stomach acid.
Deficiency: Deficiency of chloride is extremely rare. Symptoms include nausea, vomiting, weakness, confusion.
Food sources: Salt substitutes, sea salt, table salt.

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