Introduction to Environment
The term environmental has been defined under section 2(A)
of environment protection Act (1986) to include water, Air and human beings
other living creature, plants microorganisms and property.
environment:- The term environment is used to describe in the aggregate all
the external forces, influence and conditions, which affect the life nature
behavior and the growth development and maturity of living organism.
Type of environment:-
the environment may be divided into
The basis of physical characteristics and state, abiotic or
physical environment in subdivided into Solid (Lithosphere) Liquid
(Hydrosphere) Gas (Atmosphere)
These environments can be termed as Lithosphere,
Hydrosphere, Atmosphere environment which can be further broken into smaller
units based on different spatial scales like:- Mountain environment, Plateau
The physical environment may also be viewed in terms of
climate conditions providing contain suite of habits for biological communities
like-Tropical temperature and polar environment etc.
2) Biotic environment
The organism work to form their social groups and
organizations at several levels.
The organizations work to derive matter from the physical
environment for their sustenance and development.
It may be pointed out that of all the organism man is the
most skilled and civilization and social organization is most systematic.
It is significant to note that three aspects of man,
physical, social and economic have different characteristics and function in
the Biotic environment
It consists of flora and fauna including man as an important
They decided into-
The basic components of the environment are atmosphere or
the Air, Lithosphere or the rocks and soil Hydrosphere or the water and the
living components of the environment or the biosphere.
the thick gaseous layer surrounding the earth. It spreads up to 300km above the
A part from gases there are water vapor, industrial gases,
dust and smoke particular in suspended state microorganism etc.
core which is around 7000km in diameter and is situated at the earth’s center.
The mantle which environs the core and has a thickness of 2900km.
The crust floats on top of the mantle and is composed of
basalt rich oceanic crust and granitic rich continental crust.
Hydrosphere include all water on or near earth surface and include oceans,
lakes, rivers, clouds, soils, etc.
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