PHARMACEUTICS – I – D. Pharmacy First Year Important Question Answer

PHARMACEUTICS – I

PHARMACEUTICS – I D Pharmacy First Year Important Question Answer

Pharmaceutics - I D Pharmacy First Year Important Question Answer, D Pharmacy First Year Important Question Answer Answer

Question 01: Define sterilization. Discuss briefly various methods of sterilization. Differentiate between dry and moist heat Sterilization.

Question 02: What should be characteristics of material for containers? Discuss glass & plastics containers in detail for packaging of pharmaceutical preparations with merits and demerits.

Question 03: Enumerate the various factors affecting size reduction. What is need or importance of size reduction? Discuss ball mill and fluid energy mill in detail.

Question 04: a) Explain the evaluation of tablets. (b)  What is significance of adding binding agent to powder mixture in manufacturing of tablets? Give examples of binder

Question 05: Define aerosols and discuss about their packaging. Give advantages and disadvantages of aerosols.

Question 06: Write a short note on the following: (a) Aseptic technique (b) Lavigation and Elutriation (c) Isotonic solution (d) Freeze drying Question

Question 07: Write short a note on: (a) Grades of powder as per I.P (b) Sieving/Sifting (c) Filter aids (d) Cyclone separator (e) Steam distillation

Question 08: Discuss any four (a) Pasteurization (b) Maceration process (c) Difference between sterilization and disinfection (d) Sintered glass filters (e) Colloid mill (f) Tray dryer

Question 09: Write the difference between hard and soft gelatin capsule. Discuss with the help of neat and well labeled diagram the filling of hard and soft gelatin capsule.

Question 10: (a) Define filtration. Discuss filter press in detail. (b) Define extraction. What is percolation? Explain its method with advantages and disadvantages.

Question 11: (a) Define immunity. Explain B.C.G and D.P.T vaccine. (b) What is Pharmacopoeia? Explain Indian Pharmacopoeia and British Pharmacopoeia in detail.

Question 12: Define the following terms: (a) Linctuses (b) New drug delivery system (c) Emulsions (d) Suspension (e) Tablets (f) Syrups (g) Elixirs.

Question 13: Differentiate the following terms:- (a) Organized/Unorganized drugs (b) Purified water I.P. and Water for injection  I.P (c) Liniments and Lotions (d) Mouth washes and Gargles (e) Sera/vaccines & Toxoids (f) Active and Passive Immunity (g) Wet granulation and Dry granulation (h) Evaporation and Drying (i) Infusion and Decoction

Question 14: Define the given terms: (a) Antigen (b) Phagocytosis (c) Enteric coating (d) Satvas (e) Bhasam (f) Sieve number

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Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

What is the definition of sterilization in pharmaceuticals?

Sterilization in pharmaceuticals refers to the process of eliminating all viable microorganisms, including bacteria, spores, and viruses, from a product or environment.

What are the various methods used for sterilization in pharmaceuticals?

Sterilization methods include autoclaving, dry heat sterilization, steam sterilization, and chemical sterilization, among others.

Can you explain the differences between dry and moist heat sterilization methods?

Dry heat sterilization uses hot air to sterilize items, while moist heat sterilization uses steam. Dry heat requires higher temperatures and longer exposure times than moist heat.

What are the essential characteristics of materials used for pharmaceutical containers?

Pharmaceutical containers should be inert, compatible with the contents, protect against contamination, and have good sealing properties.

Can you elaborate on the merits and demerits of glass containers for pharmaceutical packaging?

Glass containers are inert and protect against contamination but are fragile and can break.

What are the advantages and disadvantages of using plastic containers for pharmaceutical packaging?

Plastic containers are lightweight and durable but may not provide the same level of protection against light and oxygen as glass.

What factors influence the size reduction process in pharmaceutical manufacturing?

Factors include the size and hardness of the material, equipment used, and the desired particle size.

Why is size reduction important in pharmaceutical manufacturing?

Size reduction is crucial for achieving uniformity and improving dissolution rates in pharmaceutical formulations.

Could you explain the working principles of a ball mill and a fluid energy mill in size reduction?

A ball mill uses balls to break down materials by impact and attrition, while a fluid energy mill uses high-velocity air to reduce particle size.

What is the process of evaluating tablets in pharmaceutical quality control?

Tablet evaluation involves assessing various parameters like hardness, friability, disintegration, and dissolution.

Why is the addition of a binding agent significant in tablet manufacturing?

Binding agents help improve the tablet’s cohesion, making it easier to handle during production and administration. They enhance tablet integrity and reduce the likelihood of crumbling.

Can you provide examples of common binding agents used in tablet manufacturing?

Common binders include starch, cellulose derivatives like microcrystalline cellulose, and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP).

What is the definition of aerosols in pharmaceuticals?

Aerosols are pressurized systems that dispense a product, typically consisting of a propellant, product, and container.

How are aerosols typically packaged and dispensed in the pharmaceutical industry?

Aerosols are usually stored in cans or containers with a valve system that allows controlled dispensing when the valve is depressed.

What are some advantages and disadvantages of aerosols in pharmaceuticals?

Advantages include precise dosing and protection from contamination. Disadvantages may include potential environmental concerns related to propellants and inhalation difficulties for certain patients.

What is meant by the term “aseptic technique” in pharmaceuticals?

Aseptic technique involves preventing contamination during the preparation and handling of sterile products to ensure their safety and efficacy.

Can you explain lavigation and elutriation as pharmaceutical processes?

Lavigation is a process of reducing the particle size of a substance by wet grinding, while elutriation is a method for separating particles based on their size and density.

Define an isotonic solution and its significance in pharmaceutical formulations.

An isotonic solution has the same osmotic pressure as bodily fluids and is used to minimize irritation when administering drugs or solutions intravenously.

What is freeze drying, and why is it important in pharmaceuticals?

Freeze drying is a process of removing moisture from a product by freezing it and then applying vacuum pressure. It is crucial for preserving the stability and shelf-life of certain pharmaceuticals.

What are the different grades of powder as per the Indian Pharmacopoeia (I.P)?

The I.P classifies powders into different grades, such as fine powder, moderately coarse powder, and coarse powder, based on particle size.

Explain the process of sieving/sifting in pharmaceutical manufacturing.

Sieving or sifting involves passing powdered materials through a mesh or sieve to separate particles of different sizes, ensuring uniformity.

What are filter aids, and how are they used in filtration processes?

Filter aids are substances added to filter media to improve filtration efficiency by enhancing the retention of fine particles.

Describe the function of a cyclone separator in pharmaceutical processes.

A cyclone separator is used to separate particles from a gas or liquid stream by centrifugal force, helping to remove contaminants.

What is steam distillation, and how is it applied in pharmaceuticals?

Steam distillation is a method used to extract volatile compounds from plant materials or other substances using steam as a solvent. It is commonly employed in the extraction of essential oils.

What is pasteurization, and how is it applied in the pharmaceutical industry?

Pasteurization is a process of heat treatment used to eliminate pathogenic microorganisms in liquids while preserving their quality.

Explain the maceration process in pharmaceutical preparations.

Maceration involves soaking plant materials in a solvent, typically alcohol or water, to extract active compounds.

What is the difference between sterilization and disinfection in pharmaceutical practices?

Sterilization completely eliminates all forms of microbial life, including spores, while disinfection reduces the number of microbes but may not eliminate all of them.

What are sintered glass filters, and how are they used in pharmaceutical filtration?

Sintered glass filters are porous filters made of fused glass particles. They are used for fine filtration and gas dispersion applications.

Discuss the colloid mill and its applications in pharmaceutical processes.

A colloid mill is a machine used to reduce particle size in suspensions and emulsions, making it essential in pharmaceuticals for producing stable colloidal systems.

Explain the purpose and operation of a tray dryer in pharmaceutical manufacturing.

A tray dryer is used for drying and dehydrating pharmaceutical products or ingredients, ensuring proper moisture content for stability and shelf-life.

What are the primary differences between hard and soft gelatin capsules in pharmaceutical formulations?

Hard gelatin capsules have two distinct parts and are usually filled with powders, while soft gelatin capsules are one-piece capsules filled with liquid or semi-solid formulations.

Could you describe the process of filling hard gelatin capsules with the help of a labeled diagram?

A diagram can illustrate the process of filling hard gelatin capsules with precision, showing the body and cap of the capsule and the powder fill.

Similarly, can you explain the process of filling soft gelatin capsules with the help of a labeled diagram?

A diagram can visually represent the process of filling soft gelatin capsules, highlighting the seamless, one-piece structure and the liquid or semi-solid fill.

How is filtration defined in pharmaceutical processes?

Filtration refers to the process of separating solids from liquids or gases using a porous medium or filter.

Could you provide an in-depth explanation of the filter press in pharmaceutical filtration?

A filter press is a specialized filtration equipment that utilizes pressure to separate solids from liquids efficiently.

What is extraction, and how is it defined in pharmaceuticals?

Extraction is the process of selectively removing specific compounds or constituents from a solid or liquid using a suitable solvent.

What is percolation, and how is it related to extraction in pharmaceuticals?

Percolation is a method of extracting soluble compounds by allowing a solvent to flow through a packed bed of the solid material.

Can you elaborate on the method of percolation, including its advantages and disadvantages?

Percolation involves several steps, including selection of solvents, packing the bed, and controlled flow. It offers efficient extraction but may require time and resources.

What is the definition of immunity, particularly in the context of the human body’s defense mechanisms?

Immunity refers to the body’s ability to resist and defend against infections and diseases.

Can you provide explanations for the B.C.G and D.P.T vaccines?

B.C.G (Bacillus Calmette-Guérin) and D.P.T (Diphtheria, Pertussis, and Tetanus) vaccines are important immunizations used to protect against tuberculosis and certain bacterial infections.

Define “Pharmacopoeia” and give detailed explanations of the Indian Pharmacopoeia and the British Pharmacopoeia.

A pharmacopoeia is a comprehensive collection of standards and specifications for pharmaceutical substances and preparations. The Indian Pharmacopoeia and the British Pharmacopoeia are essential references for quality and safety standards in pharmaceuticals.

What is meant by “Linctuses” in pharmaceuticals?

Linctuses are pharmaceutical preparations in liquid form, typically sweetened, and used for oral administration to relieve cough or soothe the throat.

Define “New Drug Delivery System” and its significance in pharmaceuticals.

A New Drug Delivery System (NDDS) is an innovative approach that enhances drug efficacy and patient compliance by delivering medications in novel ways, such as nanoparticles or targeted release systems.

Explain “Emulsions” as a pharmaceutical dosage form.

Emulsions are a type of pharmaceutical formulation characterized by a mixture of immiscible liquids, typically oil and water, stabilized with an emulsifying agent.

Define “Suspension” in pharmaceutical terms.

A suspension is a pharmaceutical formulation consisting of solid particles suspended in a liquid medium, and it requires shaking before use to ensure uniformity.

Define “Tablets” as a pharmaceutical dosage form.

Tablets are solid oral dosage forms made by compressing or molding medicinal ingredients, often in combination with excipients, into a defined shape and size.

What are “Syrups” in pharmaceuticals, and what is their primary use?

Syrups are liquid pharmaceutical preparations containing a high concentration of sugar or sugar substitutes. They are commonly used for oral administration of medications, especially in pediatrics.

Explain the term “Elixirs” as a pharmaceutical dosage form.

Elixirs are clear, sweetened, hydroalcoholic solutions used to deliver medications orally. They often serve as a pleasant vehicle for administering drugs.

What is the distinction between “Organized” and “Unorganized” drugs in the pharmaceutical context?

Organized drugs refer to those with well-established therapeutic uses and formulations, whereas unorganized drugs lack such standardization.

Differentiate between “Purified water I.P.” and “Water for injection I.P” in pharmaceutical specifications.

Purified water I.P. meets specific purity standards for pharmaceutical use, while Water for injection I.P. is even more stringent and used for preparing parenteral products.

How do “Liniments” and “Lotions” differ as topical pharmaceutical preparations?

Liniments are liquid or semi-liquid preparations applied externally for relief, while lotions are liquid emulsions used for various skin conditions.

Explain the difference between “Mouth washes” and “Gargles” in terms of their use and application.

Mouthwashes are used for cleaning the oral cavity, while gargles are designed for throat and mouth rinsing, often to alleviate sore throat or infections.

Distinguish between “Sera/vaccines” and “Toxoids” in the context of immunization.

Sera and vaccines are used to prevent diseases, while toxoids are vaccines containing inactivated toxins, used to induce immunity against specific diseases.

What is the difference between “Active” and “Passive” Immunity in the context of immunization?

Active immunity is developed by the body after exposure to an antigen, while passive immunity is obtained from external sources, such as maternal antibodies or serum injections.

Differentiate “Wet granulation” from “Dry granulation” in pharmaceutical tablet manufacturing processes.

Wet granulation involves adding a liquid binder to form granules, while dry granulation compacts powder mixtures without the use of liquids.

Explain the distinctions between “Evaporation” and “Drying” processes in pharmaceutical manufacturing.

Evaporation involves removing a solvent from a solution to leave behind solutes, while drying is the process of removing moisture from solids or liquids.

How do “Infusion” and “Decoction” differ in the preparation of herbal remedies or extracts?

Infusion involves steeping plant material in hot water, while decoction requires boiling the plant material to extract active compounds.

What is the definition of an “Antigen” in immunology?

An antigen is a molecule or substance that triggers an immune response in the body, leading to the production of antibodies.

Explain “Phagocytosis” as a mechanism of the immune system.

Phagocytosis is the process by which certain immune cells, like macrophages and neutrophils, engulf and digest foreign particles or pathogens.

What is “Enteric coating” in pharmaceuticals, and what is its purpose?

Enteric coating is a protective layer applied to tablets or capsules to prevent them from dissolving in the stomach and instead release the medication in the small intestine.

Define “Satvas” as a term in traditional medicine.

“Satvas” are a category of substances used in traditional Ayurvedic medicine to balance the doshas and promote overall well-being.

Explain the term “Bhasam” and its significance in traditional medicine.

“Bhasam” refers to a class of herbal and mineral preparations in Ayurveda, typically obtained by calcination and used for therapeutic purposes.

What is the meaning of “Sieve number” in pharmaceuticals and particle size analysis?

Sieve number represents the number of openings per linear inch on a sieve used for particle size analysis. Lower sieve numbers correspond to larger openings.

What are the fundamental principles of Quality Control (QC) in pharmaceutical manufacturing?

QC principles involve systematic testing, monitoring, and adherence to established standards to ensure the quality, safety, and efficacy of pharmaceutical products.

What are counterfeit drugs, and why are they a concern in pharmaceutical markets?

Counterfeit drugs are fake or fraudulent medications that mimic genuine pharmaceutical products. They pose significant risks to patient health due to inconsistent composition and quality.

What does “Expiry Date” mean in the context of pharmaceuticals?

The expiry date is the date until which a pharmaceutical product is expected to remain stable, safe, and effective when stored properly.

Explain the concept of “Shelf-Life” for pharmaceutical products.

Shelf-life refers to the period during which a pharmaceutical product maintains its desired quality and characteristics when stored under recommended conditions.

What is the definition of “Biopharmaceutics” in the context of pharmaceutical science?

Biopharmaceutics is the study of the relationship between the pharmaceutical formulation of a drug and its pharmacological effect in the body, including factors influencing drug absorption and bioavailability.

Can you provide an explanation of “Pharmacokinetics” and why it is important in drug formulation?

Pharmacokinetics is the study of how the body absorbs, distributes, metabolizes, and eliminates drugs. It plays a crucial role in designing drug formulations to achieve the desired therapeutic outcomes.

What is the significance of “Regulatory Affairs” in the pharmaceutical industry?

Regulatory Affairs involves managing the complex process of gaining regulatory approvals for pharmaceutical products, ensuring their safety, quality, and efficacy, and complying with regulatory requirements.

What are “Drug Interactions,” and why are they important to consider in pharmaceutical practice?

Drug interactions occur when one drug affects the action or metabolism of another drug, potentially leading to altered therapeutic effects or adverse reactions.

Could you give examples of potential consequences of drug interactions?

Consequences may include increased or decreased drug effectiveness, unexpected side effects, or toxic reactions when drugs interact with each other or with food or supplements.

What is the role of “Biotechnology” in the field of pharmaceuticals, and how does it influence drug development?

Biotechnology involves the use of living organisms or their products to develop drugs, such as recombinant DNA technology to produce biopharmaceuticals. It has revolutionized drug discovery and production.

What are “Pharmaceutical Excipients,” and why are they essential in drug formulation?

Pharmaceutical excipients are inert substances added to drug formulations to improve stability, appearance, taste, and ease of administration. They play a crucial role in drug development and dosage form design.

What is “Bioequivalence,” and how does it relate to the approval of generic drugs?

Bioequivalence is the demonstration that a generic drug product is pharmaceutically equivalent to its reference innovator product and produces the same pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects.

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