PHARMACEUTICS II (Dispensing Pharmacy) – D. Pharm 2nd year PDF Notes

PHARMACEUTICS II (Dispensing Pharmacy) D. Pharm 2nd year Notes

PHARMACEUTICS II (Dispensing Pharmacy) D. Pharm 2nd year Notes

PHARMACEUTICS II (Dispensing Pharmacy) D. Pharm 2nd year Notes

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Prescriptions -Reading and understanding of prescriptions; Latin terms commonly used (Detailed study is not necessary), Modern methods of prescribing, adoption of metric system. Calculations involved in dispensing.

Incompatibilities in prescriptions – study of various types of incompatibilities-physical Incompatibilities, chemical Incompatibilities, and therapeutic Incompatibilities.

Posology Dose and dosage of drugs, factors influencing dose, calculations of doses on the basis of age, sex, surface area and veterinary doses.

Dispensed Medications: (Note: A detailed study of the following dispensed medication is necessary. Methods of preparation with theoretical and practical aspects, use of appropriate containers and closures. Special labeling requirements and storage conditions should be high-lighted).

Powders – Type of powders-Advantages and disadvantages of powders, Granules, cachets and tablet triturates. Preparation of different types of powders encountered in prescriptions. Weighing methods, possible errors in weighing, minimum weighable amounts and weighing of a material below the minimum weighable amount, geometric dilution and proper usage and care of dispensing balance.

Liquid oral Dosage forms:

Monophasic Liquid Dosage Forms:

MonophasicTheoretical aspects including commonly used vehicles, essential adjuvant like stabilizers, colorants and flavors, with examples.

Review of the following monophasic liquids with details of formulation and practical methods. Liquids for internal administration Liquids for external administration or used on mucous membranes

Mixtures and concentrates, Gargles, Syrups, Mouth washes, Throat-paints, Elixirs, Douches, Ear Drops, Nasal drops, Sprays, Liniments, Lotions.

Biphasic Liquid Dosage Forms:

Suspensions   (elementary study) –Suspensions   containing diffusible   solids   and liquids   and   their preparations. Study of the adjuvant used like thickening agents, wetting agents, their necessity and quantity to be incorporated, suspensions of precipitate forming liquids like tinctures, their preparations and stability. Suspensions produced by chemical reaction. An introduction to flocculated /non-flocculated suspension system.

EmulsionsTypes of emulsions, identification of emulsion system, formulation of emulsions, selection of emulsifying agent. Instabilities in emulsions, preservation of emulsions.

Semi-Solid Dosage Forms:

Ointments: Types of ointments, classification and selection of dermatological vehicles. Preparation and stability of ointments by the following processes: Trituration, fusion, chemical reaction, Emulsification.

Pastes:  Differences between ointments and pastes, Bases of pastes. Preparation of pastes and their preservation.

Jellies: An introduction to the different types of jellies and their preparation. An elementary study of poultice.

Suppositories and peassaries Their relative merits and demerits, types of suppositories, suppository bases, classification, properties.  Preparation and packing of suppositories.  Use of suppositories of drug absorption.

Dental and cosmetic preparations: Introduction to Dentifrices, facial cosmetics, Deodorants. Anti-perspirants, shampoo, Hair dressings, and Hair removers.

Sterile Dosage forms:

Parenteral dosage forms – Definition, General requirements for parenteral dosage forms. Types of parenteral formulations, vehicles, adjuvant, processing and personnel, Facilities and quality control. Preparation of Intravenous fluids and admixtures-Total parenteral nutrition, Dialysis fluids.

Sterility testing: particulate matter monitoring- Faculty seal packaging.

Ophthalmic products: study of essential characteristics of different ophthalmic preparations. Formulation: additives, special precautions in handling and storage of ophthalmic products.

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