PHARMACEUTICS II (Dispensing Pharmacy) – D. Pharm 2nd year PDF Notes

PHARMACEUTICS II (Dispensing Pharmacy) D. Pharm 2nd year Notes

PHARMACEUTICS II (Dispensing Pharmacy) D. Pharm 2nd year Notes

PHARMACEUTICS II (Dispensing Pharmacy) D. Pharm 2nd year Notes

Note: For View/Download PDF Notes Please Click on Highlighted/Colored Topic headings.

Prescriptions -Reading and understanding of prescriptions; Latin terms commonly used (Detailed study is not necessary), Modern methods of prescribing, adoption of metric system. Calculations involved in dispensing.

Incompatibilities in prescriptions – study of various types of incompatibilities-physical Incompatibilities, chemical Incompatibilities, and therapeutic Incompatibilities.

Posology Dose and dosage of drugs, factors influencing dose, calculations of doses on the basis of age, sex, surface area and veterinary doses.

Dispensed Medications: (Note: A detailed study of the following dispensed medication is necessary. Methods of preparation with theoretical and practical aspects, use of appropriate containers and closures. Special labeling requirements and storage conditions should be high-lighted).

Powders – Type of powders-Advantages and disadvantages of powders, Granules, cachets and tablet triturates. Preparation of different types of powders encountered in prescriptions. Weighing methods, possible errors in weighing, minimum weighable amounts and weighing of a material below the minimum weighable amount, geometric dilution and proper usage and care of dispensing balance.

Liquid oral Dosage forms:

Monophasic Liquid Dosage Forms:

MonophasicTheoretical aspects including commonly used vehicles, essential adjuvant like stabilizers, colorants and flavors, with examples.

Review of the following monophasic liquids with details of formulation and practical methods. Liquids for internal administration Liquids for external administration or used on mucous membranes

Mixtures and concentrates, Gargles, Syrups, Mouth washes, Throat-paints, Elixirs, Douches, Ear Drops, Nasal drops, Sprays, Liniments, Lotions.

Biphasic Liquid Dosage Forms:

Suspensions   (elementary study) –Suspensions   containing diffusible   solids   and liquids   and   their preparations. Study of the adjuvant used like thickening agents, wetting agents, their necessity and quantity to be incorporated, suspensions of precipitate forming liquids like tinctures, their preparations and stability. Suspensions produced by chemical reaction. An introduction to flocculated /non-flocculated suspension system.

EmulsionsTypes of emulsions, identification of emulsion system, formulation of emulsions, selection of emulsifying agent. Instabilities in emulsions, preservation of emulsions.

Semi-Solid Dosage Forms:

Ointments: Types of ointments, classification and selection of dermatological vehicles. Preparation and stability of ointments by the following processes: Trituration, fusion, chemical reaction, Emulsification.

Pastes:  Differences between ointments and pastes, Bases of pastes. Preparation of pastes and their preservation.

Jellies: An introduction to the different types of jellies and their preparation. An elementary study of poultice.

Suppositories and peassaries Their relative merits and demerits, types of suppositories, suppository bases, classification, properties.  Preparation and packing of suppositories.  Use of suppositories of drug absorption.

Dental and cosmetic preparations: Introduction to Dentifrices, facial cosmetics, Deodorants. Anti-perspirants, shampoo, Hair dressings, and Hair removers.

Sterile Dosage forms:

Parenteral dosage forms – Definition, General requirements for parenteral dosage forms. Types of parenteral formulations, vehicles, adjuvant, processing and personnel, Facilities and quality control. Preparation of Intravenous fluids and admixtures-Total parenteral nutrition, Dialysis fluids.

Sterility testing: particulate matter monitoring- Faculty seal packaging.

Ophthalmic products: study of essential characteristics of different ophthalmic preparations. Formulation: additives, special precautions in handling and storage of ophthalmic products.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs):

1. What is a Dispensing Pharmacy? A dispensing pharmacy is a facility or establishment where licensed pharmacists dispense prescription medications to patients. It is a crucial component of the healthcare system, ensuring the safe and accurate distribution of medications.

2. What Role Does a Pharmacist Play in a Dispensing Pharmacy? Pharmacists in a dispensing pharmacy are responsible for interpreting and verifying prescriptions, providing counseling to patients on proper medication use, and ensuring the accuracy and safety of dispensed medications.

3. How Does a Dispensing Pharmacy Ensure Medication Safety? Dispensing pharmacies employ various safety measures, including double-checking prescriptions for accuracy, utilizing computerized prescription systems, maintaining accurate patient records, and providing patient education on proper medication administration.

4. What Information is Required on a Prescription for Dispensing? A valid prescription should include the patient’s name, the medication prescribed, dosage instructions, the prescriber’s name, date of issue, and any additional necessary information. Pharmacists use this information to accurately dispense medications.

5. Can a Dispensing Pharmacy Provide Over-the-Counter (OTC) Medications? Yes, in addition to dispensing prescription medications, many dispensing pharmacies also offer a range of over-the-counter (OTC) medications and healthcare products. These can be purchased without a prescription for common health needs.

6. How Are Medication Interactions Monitored in a Dispensing Pharmacy? Pharmacists use computerized systems to check for potential drug interactions when dispensing medications. They also rely on their knowledge and experience to assess the compatibility of multiple medications a patient may be taking.

7. What is Medication Therapy Management (MTM) in a Dispensing Pharmacy? Medication Therapy Management involves pharmacists working with patients and healthcare providers to optimize medication use. This may include reviewing medication regimens, identifying and resolving medication-related problems, and providing patient education.

8. How Can Patients Dispose of Unused Medications Obtained from a Dispensing Pharmacy? Patients should follow proper medication disposal guidelines provided by the pharmacy or local authorities. This may involve returning unused medications to the pharmacy, participating in drug take-back programs, or disposing of them in accordance with environmental guidelines.

9. Can a Dispensing Pharmacy Provide Medication Refills? Yes, many medications have the option for refills. Patients can request refills through the pharmacy, and pharmacists will review the prescription and, if appropriate, dispense the requested amount.

10. How Are Privacy and Confidentiality Maintained in a Dispensing Pharmacy? Dispensing pharmacies adhere to strict privacy and confidentiality regulations, such as the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA). Patient information is handled with the utmost care, and access is restricted to authorized personnel.

Also, Visit: Biotechnology Notes

B Pharma Notes

Enzyme Notes

Pharmacogonosy Notes for Pharma Students

4 thoughts on “PHARMACEUTICS II (Dispensing Pharmacy) – D. Pharm 2nd year PDF Notes”

Leave a Comment